Thermal Manikin is a human model to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the relationship between thermal environment and thermal comfort. Thermal manikins are complex, delicate and expensive instruments.
Thermal manikins can react as a human being and some thermal manikins can also simulate human perspiration
KHULNA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
DEPT. OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING
Thermal Manikin of ADAM & SAM
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Thermal Manikin is a human model to measure clothing insulation and to evaluate the
relationship between thermal environment and thermal comfort. Thermal manikins are
complex, delicate and expensive instruments.
Thermal manikins can react as a human being and some thermal manikins can also
simulate human perspiration. The day is not so far when the Walking Position will be
introduced on the thermal manikins.
REASON FOR USING THERMAL MANIKINS
• The thermal manikin usually predicts values of some indicators of human heat strain like
core & skin temperatures, sweat loss, heat storage and so on at a specific time intervals
during a simulated exposure. These values are used to indicate the safe or practicable
• In the HEAT: The duration of safe work or rest periods and measures to prevent
• In the COLD: The need for whole-body insulation
IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The Thermal Manikin offers the following significant performances:
Relevant simulation of human body heat exchange
Whole body & local heat fluxes
Measurement of three-dimensional heat exchange
Integration of dry heat losses in a realistic manner
Objective method for measurement of clothing thermal insulation
Quick, accurate & repeatable
Cost effective instrument for comparative measurements & product development
Provides values for prediction models
ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES FOR THERMAL MANIKINS
Thermal manikins need to have the certain properties in order to simulate the
human body accurately.
Correct Body Shape and Size
Perfect Control of Heat Emission
Proper Control of Heat Distribution across the Skin Surface
Correct Emission rate of the skin
Accurate Control of the Distribution of Perspiration across the skin surface.
DESIGN OF THERMAL MANIKIN
Advanced Thermal Manikins are consisted of three basic elements with
optional additional features
a. Temperature Sensors: The exterior skin of the manikin can be made of fiberglass,
polyester, carbon fiber, or other heat conducting materials which works as a
temperature sensors in each measurement zone.
b. Heating Elements: There are Coiled Wire under the skin which is controlled by Software
and heated through Electric Power.
c. Human Simulation: Some supplemental devices with additional mass may be fitted that
initiate general human actions like breathing, walking & sweating.
SPECIFICATIONS OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The following qualities are must to have in a Good Thermal Manikin:
• Strong Body: Must be stable & reliable
• Joints: Must be able to move in all directions and sit, walk & stand naturally. Clothes should not stuck in the joints.
• Perfect Human Body Shape
• Uniform Wiring: To ensure accurate heating only 2.2mm distance should keep between two wires.
• Intelligent Circuit: To calculate the entire surface temperature accurately.
• Four Control Modes: To automatic Calibration & internal data logging
• No heating
• Heating to a fixed set point
• Heating with fixed heat loss
• Following a Human comfort equation
INPUTS REQUIRED FOR THERMAL MANIKINS
The manikins respond to a HEAT or COLD stress depending on an interaction of
variables which describe 4 factors.
• Individual Expose: Size, Gender, Physical Fitness, State of Heat Acclimation
• Thermal Environment: Air Temperature, Air Speed, Water Vapor Content & Radiant
• Clothing Worn: Resistance to Sensible & Evaporative heat loss, Weight, Air permeability
• Nature of Work: Duration, Metabolic heat produced, Mechanical work achieved.
APPLICATION FIELD OF THERMAL MANIKIN
The thermal manikin works on the following areas:
Evaluation of clothing
Thermal Properties (Insulation, Evaporation, Resistance)
Protection (Fire, Radiation, Rain)
Evaluation of HVAC-systems (Buildings, Vehicles, Incubators)
Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality
Simulation of Human Occupancy
Standard number ISO 15831:2004
Standard title Clothing - Physiological effects - Measurement
of thermal insulation by means of a thermal
Requirement 1. Group of garments worn together on the body
at the same time
2. Manikin made from metal or plastic
3. Constructed same as the adult body human
4. Consist of head ,chest , abdomen, back,
buttock, arms, hands, legs and feet
5. Consist of 15 segments. Each segments
controlled independently regards to surface
6. Body hight:70 m
REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO VARIOUS TEST STANDARD
Standard number ASTM F1291 - 05
Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin
Requirement 1. Manikin : standing sweating manikin having the form, shape, and size of an adult
male or female
2. manikin shall be heated to a uniform, constant, skin temperature
3. consist of a head, chest/back, abdomen, buttocks, arms, hands, legs, and feet.
4. Total surface area shall be 1.8 ±0.3 m2, and height shall be 170 ±10 cm.
5. The manikin must have the ability to evaporate water from its surface
6. The skin temperature of the manikin shall be 35°C.
7. Measure the mean skin temperature with point sensors or distributed temperature
8. Controlled Environmental Chamber
Standard number ASTM F2370 - 05
Standard title Standard Test Method for Measuring the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Using a Sweating
Requirement 1. The manikin was equipped with extra humidity and temperature sensors (EK-H3
equipped with SHT75 sensors, Sensirion AG, Switzerland) on to its surface
2. Dressed in wet underwear (water content 810±15 g)
3. The whole system was placed on a weighing scale for continuous mass loss
4. Air temperature (PT 100 connected to PT-104, Pico Technology Ltd., UK) were
5. Relative humidity (EKH3 equipped with SHT75 sensors, Sensirion AG, Switzerland)
were also recorded.
Standard number EN 13537:2002
Standard title Requirements for sleeping bags
Requirement 1. thermal manikin surface (skin) temperature 34 °C
2. The tests according to the standard were carried
out on six sleeping bags
Figure . Sleeping bag .
Standard number ISO 9920:2007
Standard title Ergonomics of the thermal environment -- Estimation of thermal
insulation and water vapour resistance of a clothing ensemble
Requirement 1. It considered as the equivalent uniform thermal resistance, or thermal
insulation, on a human body
2. thermal (wetted or sweating) manikins
Standard number ASTM E96/E96M - 05
Standard title Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials
Requirement 1. Four specimens of the Dal-Seal TS membrane
2. The membranes are made from Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) with
non-woven fiber laminated on both sides which is called Dal-Seal TS
3. 33.54 mm (5.26 in.) in diameter
4. average thickness of 1.02 mm (0.04 in.)
5. to testing the specimens were conditioned at 23 ± 2°C
6. 50 ± 5% relative humidity
Standard number ASTM F1868 - 02
Standard title Standard test method for thermal and evaporative resistance of clothing
materials using a sweating hot plate
Requirement 1. Hot Plate—The guarded flat plate shall be composed of a test plate, guard
section, and bottom plate
2. temperature (33 to 36°C)
3. distilled water shall be used to wet the test plate surface.
4. Liquid Barrie
5. Calibration Fabrics
small scale tests
large scale tests
There are two types of test
small scale tests
also sometimes referred to as bench test scale
Small scale testing is an inexpensive way to assess the fabric’s level of protection
This test include some standards
NFPA 1971 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting 2000 Edition
NFPA 1977 Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildl and Fire Fighting 2005 Edition.
Disadvantage of this test
Materials are located in an apparatus and oriented in a manner that is not representative
of normal application of the equipment.
In each small scale test, materials are tested statically and dry, which are not accurate
representations of garments in real fire scenarios.
Large scale test
Large scale tests involve dressing a manikin with fire fighter clothing
exposing the manikin to a fire environment
the focus is placed on full ensemble testing
This tests are discussed include NFPA 2112, ASTM F 1930, Thermo-Man, Pyroman,
University of Alberta Test, Manikin Pit Test, RALPH, and the Robotic Manikin.
NFPA 2112 Edition: 2001
Exposed heat flux: 84 kW/m2
Expose Time: 3 seconds
Number of specimen: 3
Flame-Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel against Flash
Source: Chapter 8.5 of this standard compliance with ASTM F 1930 (see Section 2.8.2)
ASTM F 1930
100 heat flux sensors which withstand a heat flux from zero to 167 kW/m2
Figure : Instrumented Manikin in ASTM F 1930 Test Room
Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Flash Fire Simulations using an Instrumental Manikin
Test room equipped
The chamber is 7.0 feet by 7.0 feet by 8.0 feet
8 propane burner
provide a uniform heat flux of at least 84 kW/m2
exposure time: five seconds
The DuPont Thermo-Man test is very similar to ASTM F 1930
The manikin is six feet, one inch tall
122 heat sensor
similar to that of the DuPont Thermo-Man test
The total heat flux is obtained from transducers
University of Alberta Test
110 skin simulant sensors made of an inorganic material known as Colorceran
Colorceran is made from calcium, aluminum, silicate, asbestos fibers, and a binder
manikin is painted with black, high temperature paint
RESEARCH ON ADAM MANIKIN
HERE ARE THE FOUR RESEARCH / TESTS ARE DESCRIBED..
1.0 NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILITY
2.0 NAVY FIRE SCENARIOS
3.0 NAVY ENSEMBLE
4.0 TEST FACILITY
NAVY CLOTHING AND TEXTILE RESEARCH FACILITY
• The organization focuses their efforts on research and development of textiles and materials
• Those were worn by our nation’s military for a variety of scenarios from moisture protection
• Sailors’ dry-suits to materials protecting soldiers from biomedical hazards.
• This facility’s objectives also include the protection of military (and civilian) fire fighters from thermal
injuries in fire conditions.
• Currently the Navy is restricted to testing fire fighter turnout gear on bench-scale
• testing apparatus in their facility, leaving all full scale testing to the DuPont Thermo-Man manikin
NAVY FIRE SCENARIOS:
• LeBlanc analyzed possible fire scenarios in the engine room, berthing or supply areas, and the deck
using computer models and hand calculations
• After investigation of these scenarios he determined that the majority of fires on board naval vessels
would be so severe that no protective clothing would survive (LeBlanc, 62).
• He focused his research on fires that were controllable; where fire fighters might find themselves
• His final conclusions determined that the clothing test methods in 1998 did not accurately reflect fire
• That might be experienced by fire fighters, and therefore testing methods should be revised
This facility was built at Alden Research Labs in Holden, Massachusetts, and was designed/constructed by
WPI students .The design
was focused on producing a test facility that can accurately portray naval shipboard fires.
REPRODUCING REAL FIRE CONDITIONS
These tests recorded baseline functions of the apparatus. It was determined that the original design and
configuration (as of 2002) was capable of creating fires in excess of 2 MW (Fay, 79). Data was gathered on 1
MW fires to determine what fluxes aninstrumented manikin would be exposed to in the facility at this burn
The Navy ensemble consisted of the United States Navy’s First Attack fire suit, a Navy helmet and gloves, as
well as a Scott SCBA and regular rubber boots. The suit is constructed of a Kevlar/PBI Outer Shell, Nomex
Moisture Barrier, and a Kevlar Batt Thermal Liner.
The ensemble can be seen as tested in Figure 4-36, without the navy helmet and gloves, and rubber boots.
• ADAM means ‘Advanced Automotive Manikin ‘.
• A forerunner of such a new generation of manikins –ADAM was developed for the
American National Renewable Energy Laboratory for comfort testing.
• It remains the world's most advanced thermal comfort manikin and represents a true
leap in technology for thermal manikin research.
• Subdivided into 120 individual porous metal sweating zones, ADAM was designed to
evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in vehicles and aircraft.
• The manikin mimics human responses such as sweating and breathing with incredible
accuracy and responds rapidly to environmental changes.
• ADAM was designed to evaluate the highly non-uniform and transient environments in
vehicles and aircraft.
• ADAM also used for thermal comfort research.
• Used in Ventilated Seat Application.
• Used in Liquid Cooling Garment Application.
Fig: Liquid Cooling Garment
Fig: Ventilated Seat
APPLICATION OF SAM (SWEATING AGILE THERMAL
• The Sweating Agile Thermal Manikin (SAM) was developed to test
complete clothing systems Under Normal and Extreme Conditions.
• It’s main purpose to test moisture transport, thermal insulation, and
their interaction influence both the comfort and protective
properties of clothing systems.
• It simulates the human body in terms of heat production, sweat
production, and movement as closely as possible. Thus inherent
costs of human tests and the possible risk to life.
• It offers the facility to test products from the clothing industry as
well as to develop prototypes into finished products more
efficiently with lower expenditure.
• Thus helps in the field of protective clothing (fire-fighter clothing
etc.), where in most cases a conflict exists between the demands for
protection and for the comfort of the wearer. By balancing these
two factors accidents caused by heat stress can be avoided.