Unit 6 Risk, Exposure and Health


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Unit 6 Risk, Exposure and Health

  1. 1. Unit 6: Risk, Exposure, and Health Awesome APES
  2. 2. Section 3 and 4 Nicholas C
  3. 3. Source: The Habitable Planet
  4. 4. Section 5 and 6 Geoffrey Ashton
  5. 5. Health Cost Analysis and Risk Tradeoffs By: Jennifer Ellis
  6. 6. Example Lead was used for decades as a gasoline additive in the U.S
  7. 7. Regulations Safe Drinking Water Act, was amended in 1996 Requires U.S. government agencies to do cost-benefit analyses of regulations that are expected to have economic impacts.
  8. 8. Avoid Injuries illnesses avoided through policy actions
  9. 9. Benefits Hedonic Valuation: People who work in a risky job may get pay more than someone in a safer job The Results: 1 million people who are considering a regulation that would result on average in one fewer death from cancer each year.
  10. 10. Section 8 -Victoria
  11. 11. 5 Steps pg 361-365 (skip laws) Maribeth
  12. 12. Air Toxics “Air toxics are a group of air pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health problems.”
  13. 13. Some Examples: Carbo n Mono xi L e a d de Ozone Sulfur Dioxide Asb ide N g itro en x Dio P M 1 0 esto s
  14. 14. Smoking and Other Risks....
  15. 15. Categories: ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Corrosive- Strong Acid/Bases Discarded Commercial Products- Chemicals in unused forms (pesticides) Ignitable- Can create fires Mutagens- Chemical that makes DNA mutate Nonspecific Source- Manufacturing processes like solvents Reactive- Unstable, can explode or release bad chemicals Source Specific- Waste from specific industries Teratogens- Substance that can cause birth defect Toxic- Harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed
  16. 16. Treatment, Disposal, and Cleanup of Contaminated Sites Karis
  17. 17. Ways to reduce and cleanup hazardous waste: •Producing less waste •Converting hazardous materials to less hazardous or nonhazardous substances. •Placing hazardous material into perpetual storage (landfills)
  18. 18. Producing Less Waste: •Recycle •Reduce or eliminate toxicity
  19. 19. Converting hazardous materials to less hazardous or nonhazardous substances: •Chemical, physical, and Biological treatment •Incineration •Thermal Treatment
  20. 20. Perpetual Storage: •Arid Region Unsaturated Zone •Capping •Landfills •Underground Injection •Waste Piles
  21. 21. Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification •Bioaccumulation is the increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment in an organism or part of an organism. •Biomagnification is the increase in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another.
  22. 22. 5 Steps pg 367-370 (skip case study) Daniel Monsalve
  23. 23. Bioaccumulation The increase of concentration of a contaminant in an organism because of it’s environment. Biomagnification Similar to bioaccumulation but happens higher up in the food chain when a predators foodsource has accumulated contaminants.
  24. 24. Eco Incentives Green Taxes - Taxes that are intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities. Cap and Trade - A market approach used to provide economic incentives for reducing emissions of pollutants.
  25. 25. Cost Benefit Analysis Cost benefit analysis is used to determine if the cost of something is worth the economic benefit it provides, it requires: ● All information and data about the service or issue. ● Quantifying the benefits and costs. ● Defining the possible solutions to the issue. ● Brainstorming the possible societal and environmental consequences.
  26. 26. Sustainability Deals with the continuity of economic, social and environmental aspects of human society. Sustainable activities try and find the best outcomes for both humans and natural ecosystems for many different issues.
  27. 27. Relevant Laws Michaela
  28. 28. Federal Hazardous Substances Act 1960 Required that certain hazardous household products bear cautionary labels.
  29. 29. Federal Environmental Pesticides Control Act 1972 Required the registration of all pesticides in the United States.
  30. 30. Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HAZMAT) 1975 Governs the transportation of hazardous materials and wastes. Covers containers, labeling, and marking standards.
  31. 31. Toxic Substances Control Act 1976 Gives the EPA the ability to track the industrial chemicals currently produced or imported in the United States.
  32. 32. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability 1980 Established federal authority for emergency response and cleanup of hazardous substances that have been spilled, improperly disposed of, or released into the environment.
  33. 33. Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act 1980 Made states responsible for disposing of their own low-level radioactive wastes.
  34. 34. Nuclear Waste Policy Act 1982 Established a study to find a suitable site for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear reactors.
  35. 35. Vocabulary Terms be sure to make a sheet for all vocab terms in both Habitable Planet and 5 Steps and share that document with the rest of the class. Must be done by Friday. Eve Tovar