Unit 11 Pollution


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Unit 11 Pollution

  1. 1. Unit 11: Pollution APES
  2. 2. Primary & Secondary Air Pollutants MARIBETH 3•O2+hv --> 2•O3
  3. 3. Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants
  4. 4. What is the difference? Primary air pollutants are emitted directly into the air from sources. Secondary air pollutants are not directly emitted but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere.
  5. 5. Primary Air Pollutants ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Carbon monoxide (car exhausts) Sulfur dioxide (combustion of coal) Nitrogen oxides Hydrocarbons Particulate matter (both solid and liquid)
  6. 6. Secondary Air Pollutants ★ Ozone (formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the presence of sunlight) ★ NO2 (formed as NO combines with oxygen in the air) ★ Acid rain (formed when sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides react with water)
  7. 7. Carbon monoxide (CO) (Primary) ★ Odorless and Colorless ★ Stops with the process of oxygen from being delivered in blood to the body. ★ It is produced as a result of incomplete burning of carbon-containing fuels including coal, wood, charcoal, natural gas, and fuel oil. ★ Signs of too much CO inhaled are fatigue, headache, weakness, confusion, disorientation, nausea, and dizziness ★ Too much CO can cause death.
  8. 8. Ground level Ozone (O3) (Secondary) ★ Toxic to both humans and vegetation ★ Triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms. ★ Hurts the respiratory of animal (humans too?) ★ Ozone in the upper atmosphere protects living organisms by preventing damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface.
  9. 9. Aerosols & Smog By: Jenny
  10. 10. Controlling Air Pollution & Stratospheric Ozone Nicholas Cochrane
  11. 11. How to Make Your Keynote the Right Ratio for Doc’s When Making a new keynote click “Slide Size” Select 1920 x 1080 And TADA! Make sure to click the zoom in the lower left and “select fit to window”
  12. 12. Air Pollution, GHGs, Climate Change & Major Laws and Treaties Victoria Owen
  13. 13. 5 Steps Pollution http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/166/cache/articlepollution_16647_600x450.jpg Michaela
  14. 14. Air Pollution: Smog Formed in the atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and VOCs. Sources of VOCs: ● Combustion of fossil fuels. ● Solid waste facilities. ● Chemical solvent vapors (dry-cleaning) Unhealthy air. Effects: watering eyes, burning sinuses, increases in respiratory issues. http://cdn.theatlanticcities.com/img/upload/2013/01/14/china%20smog%202013% 20TV%20bldg.JPG
  15. 15. Air Pollution: Indoor Air and Acts Sick Building Syndrome: Occurs in workplaces where bad air mixes with mold spores. Clean Air Act: Opened the door for stricter regulation of polluting industries. Corporate Average Fuel Economy: reduces fuel consumption and emissions by setting fuel efficiency standards. Clean Air Interstate Rule: Set limits on particulate emissions from sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Decrease of 70% by 2018. http://archive.oaklandlocal.com/sites/default/files/i/008_2.JPG
  16. 16. Water “Pure Water” only exists in laboratories. Natural water contains dissolved gases and salts. Water must contain enough dissolved oxygen for fish to survive. http://b-i.forbesimg.com/singularity/files/2013/04/water.jpg
  17. 17. Dissolved Oxygen The amount of oxygen measured in a lake or river. Oxygen enters water by atmospheric absorption or by aquatic plant and algal photosynthesis. Removed by respiration and decomposition. Dissolved oxygen levels depends on: ● Temperature of the water. ● Water flow volume and velocity. ● Number of organisms using oxygen for respiration. http://icons.wunderground.com/data/wximagenew/k/KSMc/457-800.jpg
  18. 18. Water Pollution Water pollution comes from the loss of ay real water uses, caused by a change in the water’s composition because of human activity. ● Groundwater contaminated fertilizers, pesticides, and underground storage tanks. ● Runoff from contaminated areas. ● Oil spills. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/deforestation-2.jpg
  19. 19. Oil Spills Oil drilling results in many oil spills which have hazardous impacts on ecosystems. Spills account for 10% of marine oil pollution. Another 50% comes from ongoing sources like leaks, dumping of offshore drilling mud, and land runoff. http://www.safety4sea.com/images/media/2011.7.6-%20oil%20spill.jpg
  20. 20. Reducing GHGs http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/reducing-emissions.htm Daniel Monsalve Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Daniel Monsalve
  21. 21. Major GHGs Carbon Dioxide ● ● The main greenhouse gas. Sources ○ Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. ○ Transportation. ○ Industry. Methane (CH4) ● ● The 2nd most common GHG. Sources ○ Natural gas and petroleum manufacturing/mining. ○ Agriculture. ○ Landfills. ○ Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane.
  22. 22. Major GHGs Nitrous Oxide(N2O) ● ● 5% of US GHG emissions. Sources ○ Agriculture and soil management is 69% of (N2O) emissions. ○ Industry ○ Transportation. F Gases ● ● ● Fluorinated gases such as (HFCs), (PFCs), (CFCs). Have no natural sources. Sources ○ 84% of F gases emitted are used as a substitute for ozone depleting substances. Used for refrigeration, aerosols, and AC.
  23. 23. Reducing GHGs ● Levels of GHGs in our atmosphere are increased not only by emissions but by the modification or destruction of carbon sinks, deforestation for example. ● Limiting energy use, the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and using more clean energy can help reduce GHG emissions. 600 × 431 - hispanicallyspeakingnews.com
  24. 24. What Can You Do? ● Use as little electricity as possible. ● limit transportation, use public transportation. ● Ride a bike, use energy efficient cars. ● Buy local produce, grow your own food. ● Use eco friendly products. ● Reduce heating and air conditioning. ● Spread the word and influence others.
  25. 25. Indoor Air Quality Karis Heidebrecht
  26. 26. Pollution Indoors: We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air inside of buildings is often times just as bad, if not worse, than the air quality outdoors.
  27. 27. Some Causes of Indoor Air Pollution: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● cleaning supplies air fresheners and other sprays wet or damp carpet central heating and cooling systems smoking fireplaces paint pesticides
  28. 28. Ventilation ● Ventilation is very important for keeping pollutants out of buildings. ● If too little outdoor air enters a building, pollutants can rise to levels that can pose health and comfort problems.
  29. 29. Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Indoor Pollution: Immediate effects: • short-term and treatable • irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, fatigue, etc. Long-term effects: • can be severely debilitating or fatal • includes some respiratory diseases, heart disease, and even cancer
  30. 30. Ozone Layer Protection http://www.epa.gov/ozone/basicinfo.html Eve Tovar
  31. 31. http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.html