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Kelly Fitzsimmons, Martin Geddes, Lindsay Seabrook
May 2016
The Guardian
Avatar
Thanks to our sponsors
• This presentation summarises the research
undertaken by the Hypervoice Consortium in
2014.
• Our goal was to explore the future of voice as
computers join us in conversation
• We had the luxury to go away for six months,
and both look at what is real and grounded, as
well as to think big thoughts.
• We adopted an approach of thinking by first
principles, not by analogies.
“Dream dreams
and write them
aye, but
live them first.”
—Samuel Eliot Morison
Historian and Sailor
• Our thinking was grounded in our past
experience and expertise:
– Kelly Fitzsimmons is an information security
expert. Her company, HarQen, had created the
world’s first ‘hypervoice’ conference calling service
(shown on the next slide).
– Martin Geddes is a computer scientist and
network performance expert, with a decade of
research into voice and messaging.
– Lindsay Seabrook is a marketing consultant,
empath and (unlike the two Gen Xers above) a
‘millennial’.
We started
with a
simple question
In the year
2024
how will people
communicate?
Perfected conference call?
• Our ingoing hypothesis was that the future of
voice would involve some kind of ‘super-
improved’ conference call.
• We had a list of ten ways in which the
experience might change.
• You can view the presentation we used to
start the conversation with interviewees here.
Interviews with experts
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Who?
Founders
CEOs, CTOs, Chairman
Managing Directors, Director
EVP & SVPs
Head of Innovation
Analysts
Chief Strategist
Mobile Design/ UI Expert
Head of Digital Inclusion
Product Managers
Professor of Virtual Reality
Professor of Speech Processing
AI Experts
Infosec experts
Unify
BT
Google
Plantronics
SIP Forum
GSMA
KnowledgeVision
VoiceSage
Expect Labs
Venture Capital firms
University College London
Univ. of South Alabama Center for
Forensics, IT and Security
University of Edinburgh
Industry survey
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Articles
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Videos (lots)
We explored the ecosystem…
150+
companies and
products
“In exploration,
there needs to be the
set of people who have
no rules, and they are
going into the frontier.”
—David E. Kaplan
Physicist, “Particle Fever”
We allowed the
journey
to take us to
unexpected places…
What we found
was jarring…
WHY? IT CHALLENGED OUR CORE
BELIEFS AND ASSUMPTIONS
“Lord, we know
what we are, but
know not what
we may be.”
—William Shakespeare
Hamlet
Optimism
• We took a fundamentally optimistic view of
the future.
• The quality and quantity of human life on
Earth has been rising substantially.
• We see no reason why progress should
suddenly reverse in the near future, barring
some cataclysmic event.
Core
human
need
• Voice communication is integral to being
human, and as such it will always be part of
our ‘conversational DNA’.
• The idea that ‘voice is dead’ is tied to the
decline of telephony, which is merely one
format in which voice communication is
packaged.
• There is a good case to be made that the
speed of change is indeed increasing.
• As such, we are likely to see more change in
the next ten years than we have seen in
several decades.
• That means we need to take a quite radical
stance in what is possible.
Information revolutions
Communications
1. Computation
2. Sense

Information revolutions
Communications
Computation
1. Sense

We are all cyborgs
Cyborgs
Information revolutions
Communications
Computation
Sense
“Information is
cheap,
meaning is
expensive.”
—George Dyson,
Physicist
Sensors +
Sense-making +
Sentience
Symbols +
Structure +
Search
Senseless to SENSED
Voice belongs to the
sensor revolution
Sensors
Voice
Messaging
SYMBOLICSENSED
Hypervoice, or…?
Hypersense
• We quickly realised that voice could not be
seen in isolation from a wider context of a
sensor and sense-making revolution.
• Voice is intimate bio-sensed data. It is a
product of our bodies. This means it belongs
with other sensed data like heart rate, skin
conductivity, or joint motion.
Timeline…
Web 1.0
Hypertext
Web 2.0
Hypermessaging
Web 3.0
Hypersense
Hyperlinks Link Sharing Activity streams
• The future of voice is tied to fundamental
advances in how we contextualise
information.
• The 1990s saw the hypertext Web emerge.
• The 2000s added in timelines and gave
messages URLs. Social media is really
‘hypermessaging’.
• The 2010s are about adding sensed data
types; ‘hypersense’ relates information to its
physical context using activity streams.
“…the future
already
has begun…”
— Alvin Toffler,
Futurist
Our 2024 vision was
already happening…
“The world is moving so
fast these days that the
man who says it
can't be done is
generally interrupted by
someone doing it.”
— Elbert Hubbard,
Writer & Philosopher
Our ideas were already
features of OS releases!
End-of-history
illusion
• Our vision was myopic: the ‘end-of-history
illusion’ had tricked us into a linear
extrapolation of the past in a super-linear
world.
• We needed to get far more radical!
Wild speculation?
Science fiction?
TCMS
Already shipping product!
To see further we had to
look to edge cultures
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
“Mainstream”
(10 years away)
To see further we had to
look to edge cultures
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
“Mainstream”
(10 years away)
Gaming annexes the world
“There is a
mass exodus
to virtual worlds.”
—Edward Castronova
500 million
gamers
3 billion
hours per week
10,000
hours by age of 21
“Epic wins”
“There is
no unemployment
in the
World of Warcraft.”
—Jane McGonigal
Game designer and author
The Gaming Paradox
From the inside
it’s meaningful
From the outside
it’s meaningless
“Blissful productivity”
• Jane McGonigal describes the feeling state
that drives people to play games.
• There is a reward of ‘epic wins’, but between
those you experience highly meaningful
teamwork.
• This work that is so intrinsically rewarding that
you want to do as much of it as possible.
There’s no email or calendaring or traditional
meetings.
• People are even willing to pay to do this work!
Today’s work: “Going postal”
Look to edge cultures
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
“Mainstream”
(10 years away)
Glomads
Gamification
BYOD = Revolt against the CIO
• The old and the young have an intolerance of
complexity, and require extreme simplicity of
UI/UX.
• They are motivated by the outcome, not the
interaction with the mechanism. There has to
be a clear answer to “why should I engage
with this?”.
• Adding clutter and complexity drives these
demographics away from technology. It’s all
about what we can safely (and possibly
magically) remove from the experience.
Look to edge cultures
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
“Mainstream”
(10 years away)
Privacy is
dead?
• There is a widespread mem of ‘privacy is
dead’.
• Strangely enough, a lot of those spreading this
meme have a strong commercial interest in
your lack of privacy, in order to harvest your
identity and resell it to advertisers.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anonymous_(group)#mediaviewer/File:Anonymous_at_Scientology_in_Los_Angeles.jpg
• The zeitgeist is very much concerned with
surveillance and privacy. Many people and
technologists are working to restore and
enhance our online privacy.
Bring your own device leads to…
BYOID today
Right to be
forgotten
Even Google’s
founders might
regret weak
privacy…
Look to edge cultures
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
“Mainstream”
(10 years away)
“People with disabilities
are the world's largest
minority, an emerging market
on par with the size of China!”
Source: Denis Boudreau
1 billion
people
“There are 650m people
classified as hearing impaired
in the world.
2%have treatment for
their hearing loss.”
Source: heartoday.org
We are all disabled some of the time:
Driving a car = paraplegic
Disabled people invent
solutions to real
communications problems…
WHAT’S GOING ON?
SENSORS AND SENSING:
A SENSUAL AND SENSORY
REVOLUTION
Sensual
interfaces
“Soundscaping” (and “Sensescaping”)
Soundscaping
Wearables
10x growth of device base?
Wearables
Immersive
Social
Robotics
IoT
• Nest
“Social” sensing devices
global connected car
penetration by 2020
Source: Telefónica
$100 million
investment in
perceptual
computing
WHAT’S GOING ON?
SENSE-MAKING
“Machine learning is
the most significant
technology trend.
Computers have to get
smarter and anticipate.”
—Kevin Turner
Microsoft COO
Anticipatory Computing
Virtual Assistants
PROBLEM:
We are the
sense-making
machine
• When on a team retreat to process our
research, we heard a ‘beep’ in the house.
Then a short while later, another… and
another.
• Where could it be from? We hunted and
waited and hunted. Eventually we found it
was a refridgerator door left very slightly ajar.
• This was an ‘aha!’ moment: the sensors were
applying a new sense-making load onto us.
WHAT’S WRONG?
“Nearly all men can
stand adversity,
but if you want to
test a man's character,
give him power.”
—Abraham Lincoln
“Too many wrongly
characterize the debate as
‘security versus privacy.’
The real choice is
liberty versus control.”
— Bruce Schneier
Security expert
The ethical hole
The biggest
problem
with voice
(and all sensor data)
is privacy
• Companies harvest a crop that is our identity;
the benefit to us is small in comparison.
• Voice exposes the disconnect between cost
and benefit; the discomfort people have with
voice recording is a wake-up call that we are
giving too much away.
“Surveillance isn’t simply
the all-being all-looking eye.
It’s a mechanism by which
systems of power
assert their power.”
—danah boyd
Scholar at Microsoft Research
It’s all about…
POWER
The crisis…? Power imbalance
Social & technical etiquette
“Can we
record this
meeting?”
• The very process of doing interviews using a
hypervoice application alerted us to the
problem.
• We would ask interviewees if we could record
the call for note-taking purposes only.
• Our ‘contract’ with them was not, however,
being recorded. And there was no
enforcement mechanism.
• This was an asymmetrical relationship; we had
their voice, they could not control it.
Is this the only choice?
No privacy Decision
fatigue
• As we move to more sophisticated processing
of voice, the ‘refrigerator beep’ problem will
just grow and grow.
• “Can we record your call, run it through my
relational coach, transcribe it for our
enterprise archive, store it in Iceland, use this
data retention policy, test you for possible
mental health issues…”
• This doesn’t scale as a user experience, or
ethically.
“In this possibly terminal phase
of human existence,
democracy and freedom are
more than just ideals
to be valued – they may be
essential to survival.”
—Noam Chomsky
"Manufacturing Consent"
THE ABYSS
“The single biggest
problem in
communication is
the illusion
that it has taken place.”
—George Bernard Shaw
Playwright
Information
obesity
Data spills:
Expensive clean-up costs
Web
serfdom
• We are experiencing web serfdom. We are the
tenant farmer on the Internet. Our identity is being
tilled and sold for profit, without us reaping the
benefits.
• We relinquish all rights when we are in a corporate
context, and nearly all right just by using
applications. It’s in or opt out.
• There is no ability to negotiates terms of use,
manage the outcome, audit the process or hold
parties accountable.
THE IDEAL
“Doubt and mistrust
are the mere panic of
timid imagination, which the
steadfast heart will conquer,
and the large mind transcend.”
—Helen Keller
What technologies can
get me to this end state?
How do we
rebalance power
to get to “blissful productivity”
(sentient machines
working for us)
and avoid the abyss
(us working
for sentient machines)
?
THE BEGINNINGS OF AN AHA!
Something
Missing…
• We must offload sense-making and decision-
making to smart dynamic systems that act in
our interest.
• How can this be done? We need to become
aware of the framing of the issues that we are
attracted to as technologists.
Logic
Dominant technology
paradigm
Feelings
Subservient technology
paradigm
“Voice is
really about
emotional
connection.”
—Daniel Berninger,
Telecoms Analyst
Today: masculine paradigm
• The mainframe, minicomputer, PC and
smartphone all follow a ‘yang’ paradigm.
• There is a closed and known universe with
explicit rules that we ‘program’.
• The ‘command line’ is perhaps the most
obvious exemplar of the masculine paradigm.
Domination vs Partnership
Ecological
perspective
Adaptogens
Image: Wikipedia
Biomimicry
Image: Wikipedia
Permaculture
Image: Wikipedia
spirit of america / Shutterstock.com
• The current ecology of data is living in an
isolated biodome.
• Sensors puncture the biodome. Our view of
‘digital ecology’ needs to adjust accordingly.
DIFFERENT APPROACH?
Artificial Intelligence?Make machines more like us?
Make us more like machines?
Artificial
Intelligence?
Identity
Augmentation?
• Self-augmentation is archetypally female:
make-up, hairdos, ear piercings, neck
adornments, carrying loads on heads with
cloths, breast enhancement.
• Is there a fundamentally different paradigm
approach? Is “artificial intelligence” even the
right framing for the sensor world where we
all have bodies?
The ethical dream
The biggest
problem
with voice is
privacy
We have virtualised machines…
• Compute
• Transmission
• Storage
Computation Storage Transmission
We have not (yet) virtualised…
US
Why?
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
Blissful
productivity
What?
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
Virtualised
identity
How?
HACKER
DISABLED
GENER-
ATIONS
GAMER
GUARDIAN
AVATAR
THE
GUARDIAN
AVATAR
Digital doppelgänger
Your better self
• We are intolerant of machines joining us in
conversation for a good reason.
• To get blissfully productive, we need to get
superhuman.
• We need new savant qualities.
• The Guardian Avatar embodies this; a virtual
‘you’ that has the aspiration of accentuating
the best of you and your life.
The “Guardian Avatar” is…
1. An ethical stance
Self-sovereign identity
The “Guardian Avatar” is…
1. An ethical stance
2. A thinking tool
3. Practical technology
“Fourth wall”
The “Guardian Avatar” is…
1. An ethical stance
2. A thinking tool
3. Practical technology
Browser for a
hypersense “metaverse”
“The best time to
plant a tree
was 20 years ago.
The second best time
is now.”
— Chinese Proverb
Automated TOS lawyer
Why?
2 million factor authentication:
continual sensor data montitoring
Data
destruction
How does it work?
• Existing technologies
– Personal data locker
– Federated ID
– Distributed identity & trust
systems
– Distributed storage systems
– Biometrics
– Inference engines
– Privacy filters
– Assistants
– ASR
– Machine translation
– Sentiment analysis
• New & emerging
technologies
– VRM
– Gesture recognition
– Activity recognition
– Automatic content linking
– Homomorphic encryption
– Artificial sentience
– Inclusive & adaptive design
– Avatar animation
– Engagement analysis
– Voice reconstruction
Ultimate selfie
Dynamic vs static identity
“We change every second
that our heart beats.
Our identity systems
do not reflect this.”
– E.K. Fitzsimmons
Why Believe?
Why does it make sense?
• Computers are far better at
completing tasks where the rules are
explicit and the data set is extremely
large.
• Logical systems are indefatigable and
will perform explicit tasks more
reliably.
Why should you care?
• It will protect our sanity, optimize
our work flow to fit our mood,
expand our time available for highly
rewarding work and allow us to
achieve blissful productivity.
Why is it important?
• It a moral imperative that we own
our own identity.
–Self-soverignty should be an
inalienable right.
• Governments have proven poor at
protecting the privacy and managing
identity.
“Greater technology will
selfishly unleash our
talents, but it will also
unselfishly unleash others:
our children, and all
children to come.”
— Kevin Kelly,
Founder of Wired
www.hypervoice.org
Introducing Human Technology video
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