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Sustainable Seas         &Sustainable Seafood              Dr. Mey Akashah  Instructor, Harvard School of Public HealthHum...
Overview• Ocean resources• Development and marine ecosystems• Overfishing• Magnuson-Stevens Act• By-catch/Alt fishing tech...
Benefits of Functional Marine         Ecosystems
All new chemical entitiesapproved by FDA, 1981-2006         (n=1184)
Nature’s Medicine Chest:Pharmaceutical Resources  • Cone Shell  • Horseshoe Crabs  • Mexican Tiger Salamander
Cone Shells:        Intrathecal Ziconotide• Pain management• From Conus magus  venom• Now, synthetically  derived         ...
Horseshoe Crabs:           Battling Endotoxin• Proof of vaccine and  medical device  sterility• From horsehoe crab  blood
Sustainable Seas
Development
Manasota key
Old Manasota               New Manasota
Healthy Mangroves
Coral Reefs: Before & After
http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/seafood-quiz/
Fisheries
OverfishingOverfishing refers to the removal of marine organisms from    the environment at a level that is not sustainabl...
BOFF Hypothesis           Adapted from Palumbi 2004
A sequence of graphs showing the effect of fishing the large members of the populationat different fishing mortality level...
Economic Impacts of           Overfishing• 2006 study by Worm et al. examined the sustainability of our current global fis...
Magnuson-Stevens FisheryConservation and Management Act• Primary law governing US marine fisheries  – Originated 1976; man...
Bycatch• When fishermen are attempting to catch target fish, many other marine animals are inadvertently captured, such as...
A ratio of 0 would reflect catching target species and nothing else (Harrington, 2005)
Streamers tied to the long line floats which to serve to scare the birds away), theyrequire an investment of time and labo...
Reducing Longline Bycatch up          to 90%
Shrimp fishing, which utilizes trawl nets, nearly wiped out the highly endangeredkemps ridely sea turtle in the Gulf of Me...
Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs)
Purse Fishing (when used        properly)
How we catch our fish                        (NMFS, 2009).
http://www.mcbi.org/what/howwefish.htm
Good Vs. Bad: Seafood ChoicesCheck out:• Oceans Alive• Monterey Bay Aquarium
For information on marinemammal/shark-friendly catch methodsand sustainable fish farming, go to:http://www.montereybayaqua...
Don’t forget the trash!
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard
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Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard

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Mey Akashah, "Sustainable Seas and Sustainable Seafood," Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard Extension School, May 1 2012.

Course: Human Health and Global Environmental Change

Published in: Technology, Business
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Mey Akashah "Sustainable Seas and Seafood," Harvard

  1. 1. Sustainable Seas &Sustainable Seafood Dr. Mey Akashah Instructor, Harvard School of Public HealthHuman Health and Global Environmental Change May 1, 2012 Harvard School of Public Health (EH 278) Harvard Medical School (HO703.0) Harvard Extension School (ENVR E-165)
  2. 2. Overview• Ocean resources• Development and marine ecosystems• Overfishing• Magnuson-Stevens Act• By-catch/Alt fishing techiniques Guest Lecturer: Barton Seaver
  3. 3. Benefits of Functional Marine Ecosystems
  4. 4. All new chemical entitiesapproved by FDA, 1981-2006 (n=1184)
  5. 5. Nature’s Medicine Chest:Pharmaceutical Resources • Cone Shell • Horseshoe Crabs • Mexican Tiger Salamander
  6. 6. Cone Shells: Intrathecal Ziconotide• Pain management• From Conus magus venom• Now, synthetically derived Thursday, April 14, 2011
  7. 7. Horseshoe Crabs: Battling Endotoxin• Proof of vaccine and medical device sterility• From horsehoe crab blood
  8. 8. Sustainable Seas
  9. 9. Development
  10. 10. Manasota key
  11. 11. Old Manasota New Manasota
  12. 12. Healthy Mangroves
  13. 13. Coral Reefs: Before & After
  14. 14. http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/seafood-quiz/
  15. 15. Fisheries
  16. 16. OverfishingOverfishing refers to the removal of marine organisms from the environment at a level that is not sustainable.• Growth overfishing – Biomass lost due to fishing greater than biomass gained due to growth.• Recruitment overfishing – Spawning biomass of population reduced  number of larvae produced inadequate to replenish population.• Ecosystem overfishing – Rate of organism removal high enough to modify ecosystem composition • Often leads to system-wide detrimental effects.• Economic overfishing – Occurs when fishery resources are not being used in the most efficient manner. Limit = cost of fishing > value of catch
  17. 17. BOFF Hypothesis Adapted from Palumbi 2004
  18. 18. A sequence of graphs showing the effect of fishing the large members of the populationat different fishing mortality levels. Note that at very high rates of mortality most of thefish being captured will be immature. © TNC
  19. 19. Economic Impacts of Overfishing• 2006 study by Worm et al. examined the sustainability of our current global fishing industry• Concluded that within 50 years, most of the important fish species will be economically extinct (Worm, 2006)
  20. 20. Magnuson-Stevens FisheryConservation and Management Act• Primary law governing US marine fisheries – Originated 1976; many amendments since• Main purpose: promote optimal yield• Mandates the use of annual catch limits• Accountability measures to deter overfishing• Calls for increased international cooperation.• Criticisms – failure to stop overfishing, minimize bycatch, promote accountability
  21. 21. Bycatch• When fishermen are attempting to catch target fish, many other marine animals are inadvertently captured, such as: – Sea Birds (albatross & petrels) – Marine Mammals (dolphins, porpoises, & whales) – Sea Turtles (Kemps Ridley, leatherbacks, & hawksbill) – Non-Target Fish (undesirable species, immature fish, females)
  22. 22. A ratio of 0 would reflect catching target species and nothing else (Harrington, 2005)
  23. 23. Streamers tied to the long line floats which to serve to scare the birds away), theyrequire an investment of time and labor that fishers are not always willing to pay.
  24. 24. Reducing Longline Bycatch up to 90%
  25. 25. Shrimp fishing, which utilizes trawl nets, nearly wiped out the highly endangeredkemps ridely sea turtle in the Gulf of Mexico.
  26. 26. Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs)
  27. 27. Purse Fishing (when used properly)
  28. 28. How we catch our fish (NMFS, 2009).
  29. 29. http://www.mcbi.org/what/howwefish.htm
  30. 30. Good Vs. Bad: Seafood ChoicesCheck out:• Oceans Alive• Monterey Bay Aquarium
  31. 31. For information on marinemammal/shark-friendly catch methodsand sustainable fish farming, go to:http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_gear.aspx#pole
  32. 32. Don’t forget the trash!

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