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  1. 1. Stuff to know Marxism The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains
  2. 2. What was he interested in: <ul><li>Class control </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology is transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class tries to impose its culture on everybody. </li></ul><ul><li>Other classes go along with it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Subcultures <ul><li>Subcultures – Marxist perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Not about teenage rebellion (teenage insecurity, not just a phase) </li></ul><ul><li>About class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>They are rebelling against bourgeoisie, you don’t need to wear suits, speak in a certain way, abide by the law. They are rebelling against the capitalists. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ‘ Means of Production’ <ul><li>Capitalist societies – certain people control the means of production. They control it through the economy and politically. </li></ul><ul><li>In society today, the ruling class are the government, big companies, organisations controlled by rich people. </li></ul><ul><li>Working class were oppressed and controlled by the ruling class. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Intelligentsia <ul><li>Matthew Arnold put forward the idea of culture as the pursuit of spiritual (not materialist perfection). </li></ul><ul><li>Culture was about training people to respond to the best things in the world that would be uplifting. Critics choose the ‘best things’ and they were nearly all European. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture had to be spread – free art galleries, free museums, gothic town halls, free schools. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The idea of culture <ul><li>There are numerous criticism over video nasties, comics, media studies etc (pop culture) </li></ul><ul><li>The bourgeoisie would demand the protection of high culture as it is good for everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx would argue it is only good for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Why should the tax payer subsidise the opera, art galleries etc </li></ul><ul><li>Is this because the ruling class can get their stuff for free. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Althusser <ul><li>Dominant ideology – society is socialised into this through education and the church, families </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological state apparatuses </li></ul><ul><li>Police, law and the army – Repressive state apparatuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti globalisation marches – subvert hegemonic ideology. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hegomony <ul><li>Gramsci (1891 – 1937) - Hegemony. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of the dominant class to exercise social and political leadership to maintain power. </li></ul>
  9. 9. We accept being ruled over because we believe: <ul><li>Natural (hierarchy is an organisation that works) </li></ul><ul><li>Fair (we chose our rulers) </li></ul><ul><li>Inevitable (you can’t argue with history) </li></ul><ul><li>Right (our rulers are cleverer than us) </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense (the rich get richer, the poor get poorer) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It seems natural: </li></ul><ul><li>The law, education, the media, churches etc are reinforcing the dominant ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime doesn’t pay </li></ul><ul><li>Buy lots of stuff for Christmas </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorists are evil </li></ul><ul><li>The media props up capitalism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Media <ul><li>1.Cultural production is dominated by powerful people (mostly men). Murdoch interferes with the editor. </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason behind the production of media is to make money. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence they will support capitalists structures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2. Most newspapers in the UK supported the Conservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Few media products challenge capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The rich have got their channels in the bedroom of the poor’ Cohen, Tower of Song </li></ul><ul><li>4. Many different Media Companies are owned by the same person (multi- nationals). </li></ul><ul><li>5. The BBC does not need to make profit but still has to justify itself in a commercial environment. </li></ul><ul><li>6. According to Marxists, it is not true to say that we get what we want and that if there is a demand the media will automatically meet it. The Media follow familiar formulae and is unchallenging. </li></ul>