Is there an alternative to Hollywood? - The greatest art denies us the comfort of catharsis -
Characteristics of a Hollywood Film <ul><li>Use of Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Known Talent: </li></ul><ul><li>-writers...
Characteristics of a Hollywood Film <ul><li>Use of Special Effects –  narrative driven films don’t sell well in a global m...
Recycled Hollywood <ul><li>A Bout de Souffle – Breathless (French) </li></ul><ul><li>Ju-On – The Grudge (Japanese) </li></...
Dependency on GENRE Films <ul><li>The predictable narrative paradigm is repeated across many GENRES </li></ul><ul><li>Holl...
Some Hollywood output in 2004 <ul><li>Alfie, Agent Cody Banks 2, Anchorman, A Cinderella Story, Alien V Predator, Anaconda...
In 2004 we also got… <ul><li>The Incredibles, The Bourne Supremacy, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Million Dollar ...
Classic Hollywood Paradigm <ul><li>Hero/Heroine </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul>...
Classic Hollywood Paradigm – ‘Jaws’ <ul><li>Hero = Martin Brody (new police chief) </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change = Man...
Classic Hollywood Paradigm – ‘ET’ <ul><li>Hero = Elliot </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change = A little alien is left behind ...
Syd Field and  Screenplay <ul><li>The Three Act Structure – the paradigm is based on a two-hour/120 page Hollywood film </...
Syd Field and  Screenplay (1984) <ul><li>Plot Points – a plot point is any incident, episode or event that pushes the narr...
JAWS –  Three Act Structure
<ul><li>Essentially there are only eight plots/combinations of these plots which inform film narratives </li></ul><ul><li>...
Vladimir Propp and M orphology of the Folk Tale (1928) <ul><li>Characters can be reduced to eight/combination of these eig...
Proppean analysis of  Star Wars <ul><li>The Villain =  Darth Vader </li></ul><ul><li>The Hero =  Luke Skywalker </li></ul>...
Claude-Levi Strauss and  The Raw and the Cooked, Introduction to a Science of Mythology  (1969) <ul><li>The Great Opposite...
Laura Mulvey and  Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema  (1975) <ul><li>the dominant point of view within cinema is masculi...
A Sexist Industry? <ul><li>In 2002 women comprised only 1% of all cinematographers working on the top 250 films (Lauzen 20...
Some British Directors <ul><li>Lindsay Anderson  </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Attenborough  </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Branagh...
Other Countries Other Films  <ul><li>Indian cinema – whose output is the largest in the world in terms of number of films ...
Other Systems <ul><li>France has a strong indigenous industry – double that of UK – Italy, Spain and Germany all have heal...
Dogme 95 <ul><li>A collection of films – have been described as part of a Danish ‘new wave’ </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges c...
The Vow of Chastity <ul><li>The (Dogme 95) Vow of Chastity </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I swear to submit to the following set ...
The Vow of Chastity <ul><li>Optical work and filters are forbidden.     </li></ul><ul><li>The film must not contain superf...
Chicano Cinema <ul><li>There has been a recent ‘new wave’ in Mexican/Latin American cinema </li></ul><ul><li>-  Central St...
Hong Kong <ul><li>Hong Kong’s reintegration into China in 1997 generated the cultural setting for a new phase in Chinese f...
The Female Gaze <ul><li>A different vision of the world is offered by filmmakers such as </li></ul><ul><li>-Sally Potter, ...
The Auteur <ul><li>An alternative to mainstream Hollywood and feel-good independent movies has always been the canonical a...
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  1. 1. Is there an alternative to Hollywood? - The greatest art denies us the comfort of catharsis -
  2. 2. Characteristics of a Hollywood Film <ul><li>Use of Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Known Talent: </li></ul><ul><li>-writers e.g. Stephen King, Michael Crichton, J.K. Rowling </li></ul><ul><li>-directors e.g. Scorsese, Tarantino, Spielberg </li></ul><ul><li>Big Budgets – Average cost to make/market = $109.2 million (Motion Picture Association of America, 2004) Average British Solo Production = £3.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Six Major Studios—Disney, Fox, Warner Bros., Paramount, Universal, Sony control production, distribution, exhibition of most western countries – combined 2004 profit = $45 billion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of a Hollywood Film <ul><li>Use of Special Effects – narrative driven films don’t sell well in a global market place </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on Sequels ( Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets ), Generic Sequencing ( Halloween 12 ), Remakes ( The Ring ), Adaptations of Comics ( X Men 3 ), Adaptations of TV Shows ( The Dukes of Hazard ) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive Advertising/Merchandising </li></ul><ul><li>Huge Investment in Trailering </li></ul><ul><li>Platform Releases </li></ul>
  4. 4. Recycled Hollywood <ul><li>A Bout de Souffle – Breathless (French) </li></ul><ul><li>Ju-On – The Grudge (Japanese) </li></ul><ul><li>Abre los Ojos - Vanilla Sky (Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>Spoorloos – The Vanishing (Dutch) </li></ul><ul><li>Solaris – Solaris (Russian) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfie – Alfie (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Wings of Desire – City of Angels (German) </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia – Insomnia (Norwegian) </li></ul><ul><li>The Seven Samurai – The Magnificent Seven (Japan) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dependency on GENRE Films <ul><li>The predictable narrative paradigm is repeated across many GENRES </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood producers use genres to help them identify a ‘recipe for success’ </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘recipe’ includes; Stock situations, stock characters (types, stereotypes, archetypes), predictable iconography (objects, backgrounds, stars) themes (east v west) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some Hollywood output in 2004 <ul><li>Alfie, Agent Cody Banks 2, Anchorman, A Cinderella Story, Alien V Predator, Anacondas: The Hunt for the Blood Orchid, Catwoman, Christmas with the Kranks, Eurotrip, Alexander, Exorcist: The Beginning, I Robot, Gothika, Harold and Kumar Get the Munchies, White Chicks, Garfield the Movie, Around the World in Eighty Days, Thunderbirds, Van Helsing, The Chronicles of Riddick, New York Minute (Olsen Twins), Scooby Doo 2, Princess Diaries 2, Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, Spanglish, The Stepford Wives, Wimbledon, Fat Albert, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights, Resident Evil: Apocalypse …….. </li></ul>
  7. 7. In 2004 we also got… <ul><li>The Incredibles, The Bourne Supremacy, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Million Dollar Baby, Shrek 2, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban …. </li></ul><ul><li>… .non Hollywood 2004 films include; Lost in Translation, Shaun of the Dead, Ladies in Lavender, The Motorcycle Diaries, Fahrenheit 9/11, Before Sunset, Sideways, House of Flying Daggers, Old Boy, Hero, Super Size Me, Bad Education, The Story of the Weeping Camel </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classic Hollywood Paradigm <ul><li>Hero/Heroine </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Quest </li></ul><ul><li>Return to New Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a cause and effect logic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classic Hollywood Paradigm – ‘Jaws’ <ul><li>Hero = Martin Brody (new police chief) </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change = Mangled body of a vacationer found on beach </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium = Amity and beach life in the run up to 4 th July </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to Equilibrium = Confirmation of a man eating shark in the Amity vicinity </li></ul><ul><li>Quest = Brody, Quint and Hooper go out to sea to kill the shark </li></ul><ul><li>Return to New Equilibrium = Quint is killed by the shark. Brody and Hooper successfully kill the shark. The waters of Amity are seemingly safe again. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classic Hollywood Paradigm – ‘ET’ <ul><li>Hero = Elliot </li></ul><ul><li>Agent of Change = A little alien is left behind by his fellow ‘alien botanists’ on a ‘strange’ planet </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium – The domestic sphere of Elliot and family </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to Equilibrium – Elliot discovers ET </li></ul><ul><li>Quest – The desire to return home is strong in ET – Elliot and co try to facilitate this </li></ul><ul><li>Return to new Equilibrium - ET returns home - Elliot and co learn new values about the meaning of friendship </li></ul>
  11. 11. Syd Field and Screenplay <ul><li>The Three Act Structure – the paradigm is based on a two-hour/120 page Hollywood film </li></ul><ul><li>Act 1 = Set up – approx 30 pages long- the story, the characters, the dramatic premise, the situation, the relationship between main character/others is established. </li></ul><ul><li>Act 2 = Confrontation – approx 60 pages – the main character encounters obstacle after obstacle that keeps them from meeting their dramatic need </li></ul><ul><li>Act 3 = Resolution – Starts about page 90 to the end of screenplay- resolution of the story </li></ul>
  12. 12. Syd Field and Screenplay (1984) <ul><li>Plot Points – a plot point is any incident, episode or event that pushes the narrative forward/in another direction </li></ul><ul><li>Plot point 1 occurs at the end of Act 1 and shifts from expository into the main narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Plot point 2 shifts the main narrative into denouement – wrapping up the narrative threads </li></ul><ul><li>Before one begins to write a Hollywood script Field argues you must know four things – the beginning, plot point 1, plot point 2 and the ending </li></ul>
  13. 13. JAWS – Three Act Structure
  14. 14. <ul><li>Essentially there are only eight plots/combinations of these plots which inform film narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>Candide </li></ul><ul><li>Cinderella </li></ul><ul><li>Circe </li></ul><ul><li>Faust </li></ul><ul><li>Orpheus </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>Tristan and Iseult </li></ul>Raymond G. Frensham and Teach Yourself Screenwriting (1997)
  15. 15. Vladimir Propp and M orphology of the Folk Tale (1928) <ul><li>Characters can be reduced to eight/combination of these eight </li></ul><ul><li>The Villain </li></ul><ul><li>The Hero </li></ul><ul><li>The Donor </li></ul><ul><li>The Helper </li></ul><ul><li>The Princess </li></ul><ul><li>Her Father </li></ul><ul><li>The Dispatcher </li></ul><ul><li>The False Hero </li></ul>
  16. 16. Proppean analysis of Star Wars <ul><li>The Villain = Darth Vader </li></ul><ul><li>The Hero = Luke Skywalker </li></ul><ul><li>The Donor = Obi-Wan Kenobi </li></ul><ul><li>The Helper = C3PO, R2D2, Han Solo … </li></ul><ul><li>The Princess = Leia </li></ul><ul><li>Her Father = The Rebel Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>The Dispatcher = Obi-Wan Kenobi </li></ul><ul><li>The False Hero = </li></ul>
  17. 17. Claude-Levi Strauss and The Raw and the Cooked, Introduction to a Science of Mythology (1969) <ul><li>The Great Opposites </li></ul><ul><li>good & evil order & disorder progress & status quo love & hate civilization & the uncivilized modern & primitive masculine & feminine science & religion </li></ul>
  18. 18. Laura Mulvey and Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975) <ul><li>the dominant point of view within cinema is masculine </li></ul><ul><li>women are photographed from a male, heterosexual POV, the camera’s view point is rarely gender neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional narrative films in the ‘classical’ Hollywood tradition not only typically focus on a male protagonist in the narrative but also assume a male spectator </li></ul>
  19. 19. A Sexist Industry? <ul><li>In 2002 women comprised only 1% of all cinematographers working on the top 250 films (Lauzen 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>A woman has never won the Oscar for best directing. In fact, only two have ever been nominated -- Lina Wertmüller for ‘Seven Beauties’ in 1976 and Jane Campion for ‘The Piano’ in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 4 of 2004’s top 100 films were directed by women </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The U.S. Senate is more progressive than Hollywood. Female Senators: 9%, Female directors: 4%.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>At a time when film schools are graduating almost equal numbers of men and women, why is the movie business still such a closed shop? </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;women who were trying to make films about women were getting the lowest amount of money&quot; of any prospective filmmakers. (Lauzen 2002) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Some British Directors <ul><li>Lindsay Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Attenborough </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Branagh </li></ul><ul><li>Antonia Bird </li></ul><ul><li>Gurinder Chadha </li></ul><ul><li>Terence Davies </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Frears </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Greenaway </li></ul><ul><li>Derek Jarman </li></ul><ul><li>David Lean </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Leigh </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Loach </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Minghella </li></ul><ul><li>Shane Meadows </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolas Roeg </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Russell </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Powell </li></ul><ul><li>Sally Potter </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Richardson </li></ul><ul><li>John Schlesinger </li></ul>
  21. 21. Other Countries Other Films <ul><li>Indian cinema – whose output is the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced and in number of tickets sold. Bollywood is a strong part of popular culture of not only India and the rest of the Indian subcontinent, but also of the Middle East, parts of Africa, parts of Southeast Asia, and among the South Asian Diaspora worldwide. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other Systems <ul><li>France has a strong indigenous industry – double that of UK – Italy, Spain and Germany all have healthy production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico operated a successful studio system in the 1940’s </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt produced on an industrial scale in the 1950’ and 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong and Japan have long traditions of industrial production – in the 1930’s and 1950’s Japan was the biggest producer of films in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Asian/Latin American films are becoming increasingly popular globally – creating a ‘new wave’ of cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the greatest contemporary films are being made in Iran ‘The Apple’ </li></ul>
  23. 23. Dogme 95 <ul><li>A collection of films – have been described as part of a Danish ‘new wave’ </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges conventions of mainstream cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Have their own ‘anti-rules’ – the Vow of Chastity </li></ul><ul><li>A simpler style – complements the messages and values inscribed in the film </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Vow of Chastity <ul><li>The (Dogme 95) Vow of Chastity </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I swear to submit to the following set of rules drawn up and confirmed by DOGME 95: </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found).   </li></ul><ul><li>The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot).   </li></ul><ul><li>The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place).   </li></ul><ul><li>The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera). </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Vow of Chastity <ul><li>Optical work and filters are forbidden.   </li></ul><ul><li>The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)   </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.)   </li></ul><ul><li>Genre movies are not acceptable.   </li></ul><ul><li>The film format must be Academy 35 mm.   </li></ul><ul><li>The director must not be credited. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chicano Cinema <ul><li>There has been a recent ‘new wave’ in Mexican/Latin American cinema </li></ul><ul><li>- Central Station, El Mariachi, Behind the Sun, City of God, Y Tu Mama Tambien, Amores Perros, Maria Full of Grace, 21 Grams, The Motorcycle Diaries, El Crimen del Padre Amaro </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hong Kong <ul><li>Hong Kong’s reintegration into China in 1997 generated the cultural setting for a new phase in Chinese filmmaking. The work of Wong Kar-Wai, particularly his films Chunking Express , In the Mood for Love and 2046 exemplify how a cinematic ‘new wave’ can emerge in a country under specific cultural and historical circumstances. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Female Gaze <ul><li>A different vision of the world is offered by filmmakers such as </li></ul><ul><li>-Sally Potter, Jane Campion, Kathryn Bigelow, Claire Denis, Lynne Ramsay </li></ul><ul><li>Revision gender roles in the 21 st century – both femininities and masculinities </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive gender as ‘performative’ e.g. Orlando </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Auteur <ul><li>An alternative to mainstream Hollywood and feel-good independent movies has always been the canonical auteur cinema of Godard, Bergman, Antonioni, or more recently Takeshi Mike and Quentin Tarantino. </li></ul><ul><li>Auteurs of contemporary world cinema would include Ang Lee, Pedro Almodovar, John Waters, David Lynch, Woody Allen, Lee Sun-Fung, Nick Broomfield, Spike Lee, Alejandro Gonzalez Inàrritu </li></ul>

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