• Sound is of vital importance to all media
texts. The most important sound is likely to
be the dialogue, plus any accompanying
sounds such as those caused by
movement or characters or objects.
• However other sounds such as music will
be added to the film to add meaning to the
KEY AREAS IN SOUND
• Diegetic and Non – diegetic Sound
• Sound effects
• Parallel & Contrapuntal Sound
• Sound bridges
DIEGETIC AND NON DIEGETIC
• Sound originating from within the world of
the media text is known as diegetic
sound. This includes background sound
and ambient sound.
• Non-diegetic sound originates outside the
text. This includes voice-overs and music.
• Sound can also be used to hold together
edited shots, which are rarely continuous.
• The use of sound effects usually function as
diegetic sound as they appear from elements
within the film, even though such sound is
usually added after post-production.
• Sounds can be regarded as signs that produce
meanings, just as visual elements are signs.
• For example the creaking of a door can create
suspense and fear.
• A soundtrack creates mood and strengthens
meaning. Music is usually not noticed, but still
contributes to the intended meaning of the film.
• Voice – over: voice overs are added at the
postproduction stage and are typically used to
anchor meaning and give guidance to the
audience. They can also be used to create
sympathy for the characters or present their
point of view.
• Parallel Sound: Usually the sound we hear on
the screen is the appropriate sound we expect to
hear. The music in Psycho reflects the violence
in the film.
• Contrapuntal Sound: When the sound works
against what we see on the screen. For example
in Goodfellas, horrific acts of violence are
accompanied by bright, happy, energetic music
rather than sinister threatening music.
• This device is used fairly often for linking
two scenes together.
• This technique, is often used to help
smooth over the edit point between two