Key Terms
Denotation - refers to the simplest, most obvious level of
meaning of a sign, be it a word, image, object or sou...
Structural theory
• Semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism
are theories that explore the way in which
audiences g...
Semiotics
• The study of codes or languages and the
signs from which they are made such as
words in spoken or written lang...
• Semiotics has been extended into many different
areas, for example the car someone drives or
the clothes they wear conve...
Saussure (1983) suggested that there are three
levels on which we read media texts.
• Syntactic level – identifies the bas...
What can you read from these
pictures?
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Connotations?
Audience? (Mass or
Niche? Theory?)
Who is the institution
behind this text? Wh...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Connotations?
Audience? (Mass or
Niche? Theory?)
Who is the institution
behind this text? Wh...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Denotations?
Connotations?
Who is the institution
behind this text? What
ideology is embedde...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Denotations?
Connotations?
Who is the institution
behind this text? What
ideology is embedde...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Denotations?
Connotations?
Who is the institution
behind this text? What
ideology is embedde...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Denotations?
Connotations?
Who is the institution
behind this text? What
ideology is embedde...
Structural Theory - Semiotics
Denotations?
Connotations?
Who is the institution
behind this text? What
ideology is embedde...
Barthes (1967) developed Saussure’s ideas to
analyse media texts in relation to culture.
• He suggested that our understan...
The Cinderella myth
• Many media texts convey or tap into
popular myths. The romantic comedy
genre of films often draws on...
Barthes (1967)
• For Barthes (1967), the final layer of signification
(the idea, meaning or concept that is
represented) r...
The Cinderella Myth
What does this magazine
cover articulate about the
Cinderella myth?
What does it assume about
little g...
Homework: How are women represented in the following texts?
(Apply a structural analysis. Also, think about stereotypes, e...
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MediaFilmExchange.co.uk Powerpoint

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MediaFilmExchange.co.uk Powerpoint

  1. 1. Key Terms Denotation - refers to the simplest, most obvious level of meaning of a sign, be it a word, image, object or sound and occur immediately to the audience Connotation - refers to the second order of meaning in which a wider range of associations may arise and rely on the representational and symbolic levels of meaning that can be associated with or suggested by a sign. These meanings often depend on the culture and background of the ‘reader’. Myths - frequently told stories that a culture repeats in order to convey the dominant values and ideologies of that culture.
  2. 2. Structural theory • Semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism are theories that explore the way in which audiences gain meaning from media texts. • In AS Media Studies you began to understand how audiences read media language, such as colour, camera work, clothing, editing and ‘mise- en-scene’ in media texts such as moving image and magazines.
  3. 3. Semiotics • The study of codes or languages and the signs from which they are made such as words in spoken or written language. • We have learnt to read another range of languages or codes such as nodding or shaking your head means ‘yes’ or ‘no’ in body language.
  4. 4. • Semiotics has been extended into many different areas, for example the car someone drives or the clothes they wear convey a certain message and give information to the ‘viewer’. • Give an example of what the reader of the text could interpret through the choice of car someone drives and then through the choice of clothes they wear.
  5. 5. Saussure (1983) suggested that there are three levels on which we read media texts. • Syntactic level – identifies the basic denotations in the text, its dominant elements, for example the colour or overall effect. • Representational level – looks at the representations conveyed in the text • Symbolic level – involves the hidden cultural or symbolic meanings that the text conveys.
  6. 6. What can you read from these pictures?
  7. 7. Structural Theory - Semiotics Connotations? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?) Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Denotations?
  8. 8. Structural Theory - Semiotics Connotations? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?) Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Denotations?
  9. 9. Structural Theory - Semiotics Denotations? Connotations? Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?)
  10. 10. Structural Theory - Semiotics Denotations? Connotations? Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?)
  11. 11. Structural Theory - Semiotics Denotations? Connotations? Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?)
  12. 12. Structural Theory - Semiotics Denotations? Connotations? Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?)
  13. 13. Structural Theory - Semiotics Denotations? Connotations? Who is the institution behind this text? What ideology is embedded in the text? Audience? (Mass or Niche? Theory?)
  14. 14. Barthes (1967) developed Saussure’s ideas to analyse media texts in relation to culture. • He suggested that our understanding of many media texts rests not merely upon what the texts portray but on the texts’ relationship to frequently told stories or myths in our culture.
  15. 15. The Cinderella myth • Many media texts convey or tap into popular myths. The romantic comedy genre of films often draws on the Cinderella myth. • There is a repeated narrative a girl rescued from her miserable life by a handsome man.
  16. 16. Barthes (1967) • For Barthes (1967), the final layer of signification (the idea, meaning or concept that is represented) relates to cultural meaning. • In terms of the Cinderella myth the cultural meanings or rather the ideologies and values conveyed are that men are active and women are passive, that men are economically powerful providers and a women’s key role is to be sexually alluring. • Try to think of three more films that use the ‘Cinderella myth’
  17. 17. The Cinderella Myth What does this magazine cover articulate about the Cinderella myth? What does it assume about little girls? What is the ideology embedded in the text?
  18. 18. Homework: How are women represented in the following texts? (Apply a structural analysis. Also, think about stereotypes, etc.)

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