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Maryland Paranormal Research ® Parapsychology for Paranormal Research

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Maryland Paranormal Research ® Parapsychology for Paranormal Research

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Maryland Paranormal Research ® Parapsychology for Paranormal Research

  1. 1. Parapsychology for Paranormal Research
  2. 2.  This presentation surveys academic parapsychology research on varieties of psi experiences including extrasensory perception, mind-matter interaction and post-mortem survival. It is intended to provide background on parapsychology for paranormal research in the field.
  3. 3.  Parapsychology is the scientific study of psi phenomena " It’s no longer a matter of believing or disbelieving, it is a matter of being aware of the facts or not being aware of the facts " - J.B. Rhine
  4. 4.  Psi phenomena are experiences in which information or energy seems to have been transferred or apprehended without the operation of the known senses or logical inference CARDENA, Etzel, MARCUSSON-CLAVERTZ, David and PALMER , John (2015), Reintroducing Parapsychology. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  5. 5.  Parapsychology as a discipline traces its origin to the founding of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) on Feb 20 1882 in London. Historic SPR studies include: 1886: Phantasms of the Living 1903: Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death ALVARADO,Carlos S and ZINGRONE, Nancy L (2016): Introduction to the Study of Psychic Phenomena, Lecture. Parapsychology Massively Open Online Course (ParaMOOC), 2016.
  6. 6.  Early work of the SPR often focused on the investigation/exposure of fraudulent mediums in connection with the Spiritualism Movement  ThisVictorian-era movement was marked by widespread belief that personal consciousness persisted after bodily death  The movement reached peak adherence in the 1840s fueled by media coverage of séances of the Fox sisters and the influence of mesmerism
  7. 7.  Exceptional Experiences (ExE) are experiences that - from the point of view of those affected by them - are so exceptional that they seem incompatible (dissonant) with their explanations of reality or with the worldview of their social environment BELZ, Martina and FACHWolfgang (2015), Exceptional Experiences (ExE) in Clinical Psychology. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  8. 8. coincidence phenomena dissociation phenomena external phenomena [world view] internal phenomena [self view] meaningful coincidences poltergeists/ apparitions automatisms/ mediumship extrasensory perception BELZ, Martina and FACHWolfgang (2015), Exceptional Experiences (ExE) in Clinical Psychology. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  9. 9.  ExE can be considered as spontaneous phenomena of dissonance and can be misattributed from lack of information dissonance phenomena dissonance reduction resistance paradigm change rational reduction paradigmatic breakdown cognitive struggle adaptation or nonadaptation EVRARD, Renaud: Exceptional Experiences as Paradigmatic Breakdowns, Lecture. Parapsychology Massively Open Online Course (ParaMOOC), 2016. KRAMER,Wim H (2012), Experiences with Psi Counseling in Holland. In InW Kramer (Ed.), Perspectives of Clinical Parapsychology: An Introductory Reader,The Netherlands: Stichting Het Johan Borgman Fonds.
  10. 10. Mind Matter Interaction Extra Sensory Perception Survival of Consciousness reincarnation ghosts/hauntings/adc near death experience psychokinesis (pk) intentionality DMILS clairvoyance precognition telepathy psychometrypoltergeists mediumship
  11. 11.  Super-psi hypothesis is the notion that psychic functioning is more pervasive in everyday affairs than experimentation suggests, and represents psi functioning of a highly controlled or refined nature Braude, S. (2016).The Super Psi Hypothesis, In PSI Encylopedia, Society for Psychical Research..
  12. 12.  The notion of post-mortem survival that a disembodied consciousness or some such discarnate element of human personality might survive bodily death at least for a time IRWIN, H.S. andWATT, C (2007: An Introduction to Parapsychology, 5th Edition, McFarland & Company, Inc,: Jefferson, NC.
  13. 13.  A ghost is a popular term for a discarnate (or spirit) being  Visually experienced in the form (or projection) of an apparition  Apparitions are rare and can be of living or deceased persons  Apparitions may be perceived via sensory, telepathic or instrumental channelsMAHER, Michaleen (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  14. 14.  No evidence for the notion that ghosts primarily haunt old houses  No evidence that ghosts are primarily connected with crimes or tragedies  Ghosts do not ordinarily appear on anniversaries nor on special occasions Maher, M. (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc. Sidgwick, E. M. (1885). Notes on the evidence, collected by the Society, for phantasms of the dead. In Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 3, pp. 69-150).
  15. 15.  Ghosts rarely appear in the clothing of a bygone era  Ghosts may be seen in daylight or artificial light, at dawn or dusk, indoors or outdoors  Percipients may be of any: age; gender; profession; temperament; intellect; state of health or emotion MAHER, Michaleen (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc. SIDGWICK, Eleanor M. Notes on the evidence, collected by the society, for phantasms of the dead, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research,, 3 69-150
  16. 16.  Ghosts may or may not be recognized, but it is rare for percipients to see a ghost that is fixed to a location and is known to them  Ghosts do not tend to materialize in areas where witnesses had already been looking  Ghosts may disappear suddenly or fade out gradually or after witness inattention Maher, M. (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc. Sidgwick, E. M. (1885). Notes on the evidence, collected by the society, for phantasms of the dead. In Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 3, pp. 69-150).
  17. 17.  Unaccountable sounds may accompany ghosts or ambient sound may be normal  If multiple persons are present some may see the ghost while others do not even when looking in the same direction  Ghosts appear to have an affinity for a particular location or parts of that location MAHER, Michaleen (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc. SIDGWICK, Eleanor M. Notes on the evidence, collected by the society, for phantasms of the dead, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research,, 3 69-150
  18. 18. Gurney, E., Myers, F.W. H., & Podmore, F. (1886). Phantasms of the living (Vols. 1-2). London: Trübner &Co.  Collection of 702 paranormal experiments and cases providing evidence for telepathy  Found striking incidences of apparitions of the living in moments of crisis or danger and persons near or at the moment death  These cases appeared evidential of shock- induced forms of thought transference  Study emphasized veridical apparitions
  19. 19.  Survey of paranormal experiences in the UK: visual, audible and tactile apparitions  17k responses with 1,684=yes replies  1,112 first hand cases of visual apparitions  352 cases were visions of the living (31%)  Most apparitions appeared realistic (74%)  Apparitions exhibited normal movementsSidgwick, H., Johnson, A., Myers, F.W., Podmore, F., & Sidgwick, E. M. (1894). Report on the census of hallucinations. In Proceedings of the society for psychical research (Vol. 10, No. 26, pp. 25-394).Trübner & Co, London.
  20. 20. Myers, F.W. (1907). Human personality and its survival of bodily death,Vol I andVol II. NY, Longman, Green andCo.  Extended telepathy theory and capacities to post-mortem agency but also theorized apparitions as projections in meta space  Case histories included near-death experiences and near-death awareness ("Peak in Darien" cases and welcoming apparitions), recognizable and haunting apparitions, and collective percipience
  21. 21.  Conditions under which an apparition appeared (n=449 cases) (1991 study) Daylight/ normal electric light 51 % Semidarkness 35 % Darkness 9 % Varied/ unknown 5 % Erlendur HARALDSON and Joop HOUTKOOPER: Psychic Experiences in the Multinational HumanValues Study.Who reports them?, Journal of theAmerican Society for Psychical Research, April 1991, 145-158.
  22. 22.  Identities of apparitions (n=423 cases) (1991 study) Relatives 214 50 % Friends 38 9 % Co-workers 11 3 % Acquaintances 51 12 % Strangers 109 26 % No information 26 Erlendur HARALDSON and Joop HOUTKOOPER: Psychic Experiences in the Multinational HumanValues Study.Who reports them?, Journal of theAmerican Society for Psychical Research, April 1991, 145-158.
  23. 23.  Appearance of apparitions in relation to time of death (n=272 cases) (1991 study) Within 1 hour 18 7 % Within 1-24 hours 19 7 % one week 23 8 % one month 24 9 % one year 57 21 % 1-5 years 57 21 % 6-10 years 25 9 % > 10 years 49 18 % Unknown 78 Erlendur HARALDSON and Joop HOUTKOOPER: Psychic Experiences in the Multinational HumanValues Study.Who reports them?, Journal of theAmerican Society for Psychical Research, April 1991, 145-158.
  24. 24.  Known causes of death for apparitions (n=346 cases) (1991 study) All Men Women Disease 248 (72%) 148 (62%) 100 (92%) Violent death 98 (28%) 89 (38%) 9 (8%) Unknown 103 68 21* Total 449 305 130 *Not known in 14 cases if deceased is male or female Rate of violent death in the population for USA (3.8%) Erlendur HARALDSON and Joop HOUTKOOPER: Psychic Experiences in the Multinational HumanValues Study.Who reports them?, Journal of theAmerican Society for Psychical Research, April 1991, 145-158.
  25. 25.  Poltergeists (German for noisy spirit) are usually short-lived phenomena involving physical manifestations such as disruptive sounds or pronounced object movements  Poltergeist phenomena are considered to be person-centered (i.e. living agency)  Some poltergeist activity also occurs in connection with hauntings MAHER, Michaleen (2015), Ghosts an Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma . In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  26. 26. Roll,W. G. (1972).The poltergeist. NY, Nelson Doubleday, Inc.Roll,W. G. (1972).The poltergeist. NY, Nelson Doubleday, Inc.  Popularized the living agent theory of poltergeists as psychokinetic phenomena  Sources of activity are focus persons who project pk energies into the environment  Found pk effects were more pronounced and frequent within 15 feet of focal person  Focus persons usually were young adults experiencing marked interpersonal stress
  27. 27.  1977 Study on Poltergeists (n=116 cases) Movement of objects 91% Sounds 54% Apparitions 23% Effects over people 12% Voices 11% Lights 9% Temperature changes 6% Fires 3% Writing 2% ROLL,W. G. (1977). Poltergeists. In B.B.Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology (pp. 382-413). New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  28. 28. Gauld,A., & Cornell, A. D. (1979). Poltergeists. Routledge Kegan & Paul.  Cluster analysis of 500 published cases of paranormal experiences [9th-20th century]  Of the total, 328 were poltergeist cases and 172 were haunting cases  Hauntings involved recurrent phenomena that are place-centered, persisting on/off for several years, often occurring at night  Principal activity included imitative noises
  29. 29.  Cases of the ReincarnationType (CORT) was a method of systematic study pioneered by Dr. Ian Stevenson at the University ofVirginia  CORT cases verified recollections of a Previous Personality (PP) MILLS,Antonia andTUCKER Jim B (2015), Reincarnation: Field Studies andTheoretical IssuesToday. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  30. 30.  Early onset of PP memories: average age is 30 months  Birthmarks on a subject (S) will appear to relate to a PP’s cause of death  Case frequency of PP violent or premature death (28%) MILLS,Antonia andTUCKER Jim B (2015), Reincarnation: Field Studies andTheoretical IssuesToday. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  31. 31.  Short intervals between S births and PP deaths: < 60 months  Proximity of S and families of a PP: often a radius of 15 miles  In >20% of cases an S describes intermediate realms like in NDE MILLS,Antonia andTUCKER Jim B (2015), Reincarnation: Field Studies andTheoretical IssuesToday. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  32. 32.  PP memories fade after age 6  Past lives may explain déjà vu, instantaneous likes/dislikes of persons and phobias MILLS,Antonia andTUCKER Jim B (2015), Reincarnation: Field Studies andTheoretical IssuesToday. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  33. 33.  A near-death experience (NDE) is an intense psychological and spiritual experience associated with impending death, encompassing multiple possible sensations to include: detachment from the body; serenity; life review; the presence of radiance; and encounters with familiar or unknown beings HOLDEN, Janice M (2015): Recent Research on Near Death Experiences withTwo New Cases. From J.M. Holden (Ed.), Handbook of Near-Death Experiences:ThirtyYears of Investigation with Updates, California: Preager./ABC-CLIO., 2009
  34. 34.  NDE may be pleasurable or distressing events  NDE have several stages: non-material (sense of floating) material (out of body perception) trans-material (spirit interaction) HOLDEN, Janice M (2015): Recent Research on Near Death Experiences withTwo New Cases. From J.M. Holden (Ed.), Handbook of Near-Death Experiences:ThirtyYears of Investigation with Updates, California: Preager./ABC-CLIO., 2009
  35. 35. NDE accounts suggest expanded forms of consciousness to include:  Panoramic 360˚ fields of view  Transparency of objects/walls  Ability to traverse vast distances  Merging of past/present/future Jean-Pierre JOURDAN: Near Death Experiences and the 5th Dimensional Spatio-Temporal Perspective, Journal of Cosmology, 2011,Vol. 14..
  36. 36. After a NDE persons experience:  Loss of the fear of dying  Increased purpose/self-worth  Deeper spiritual/religious faith  Sporadic medium experiences  Electronic device malfunctions HOLDEN, Janice M (2015): Recent Research on Near Death Experiences withTwo New Cases. From J.M. Holden (Ed.), Handbook of Near-Death Experiences:ThirtyYears of Investigation with Updates, California: Preager./ABC-CLIO., 2009
  37. 37.  Mediums are individuals who are believed to produce psi phenomena via the agency of spirits of the dead. Forms of mediumship include: Physical (e.g. materializations/sounds) Mental (e.g. visions/voices/writing) ALVARADO,Carlos S and ZINGRONE, Nancy L (2016): Introduction to the Study of Psychic Phenomena, Lecture. Parapsychology Massively Open Online Course (ParaMOOC), 2016.
  38. 38.  Double blind studies on research- certified mental mediums indicate statistically significant effects (success rates) above chance expectation  The source of anomalous information reception in mediumistic experiences remains unknown BIESCHEL, Julie and ZINGRONE Nancy L (2015), Mental Mediumship. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  39. 39.  Mediumistic experiences can involve multiple modes of sensory perception, telepathy, empathy and precognition  Brain wave patterns associated with mediumistic communication markedly differ from those involved with recall, perceptual or fabrication tasks BIESCHEL, Julie and ZINGRONE Nancy L (2015), Mental Mediumship. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  40. 40.  The apparent ability of humans to affect objects solely by the power of the mind
  41. 41.  Macro-pk are phenomena that are experienced through the five senses  Main sources of findings are from valid poltergeist and physical mediumship cases BRAUDE, Stephan (2015), Macro-psychokinesis. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  42. 42.  Micro-pk are phenomena that are observed through statistical means  Random event generators are often used for experimentation  Meditation may have pk effects RONEY-DOUGAL, Serena M (2015), Ariadne’sThread: Meditation and Psi. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  43. 43.  Distant Mental Interaction with Living Systems (DMILS) involves psi potential for direct intentional effects on living systems Schmidt, S. (2015). Experimental research on distant intention phenomena. Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21stCentury, 244., NC: McFarland andCo. Inc.
  44. 44. Electro Dermal Activity (EDA)  Galvanic skin response Electroencephalogram (EEG)  Electrical activity in the brain Electromyography (EMG)  Electrical activity in muscles Schmidt, S. (2015). Experimental research on distant intention phenomena. Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21stCentury, 244., NC: McFarland andCo. Inc.
  45. 45. Allo-feedback experiments  Agent affects receiver EDA Remote staring experiments  Agent views receiver via CCTV Attention-focusing facilitation  Agent affects receiver attention Schmidt, S. (2015). Experimental research on distant intention phenomena. Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21stCentury, 244., NC: McFarland andCo. Inc.
  46. 46.  DMILS experiments (feedback, remote staring and attention focusing) are tests of distant intentionality and show consistent patterns of effect sizes  Effect sizes are small but statistically significant. Most persons wouldn’t notice  Results for distant healing are mixed but hypnotic suggestion may have an impact Schmidt, S. (2015). Experimental research on distant intention phenomena. Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21stCentury, 244., NC: McFarland andCo. Inc.
  47. 47.  ElectronicVoice Phenomena (EVP) refer to electronically generated sounds that resemble speech, but are not the result of intentional voice recordings or renderings  EVP are often short lasting < 4 secs  EVP contain unusual speech formants LEARY, Mark R and BUTLERTom (2015), ElectronicVoice Phenomena. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  48. 48.  Konstantin Raudive is credited with popularizing the existence of EVP with his book “Breakthrough” (1971)  His work was regarded as uncritical and uncontrolled. A favored EVP was found to be a German radio broadcast  Academic research has been sparse LEARY, Mark R and BUTLERTom (2015), ElectronicVoice Phenomena. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  49. 49. Telepathy  Ability to communicate mind-to-mind Clairvoyance  Mental ability to view distant events Precognition  Mental ability to know future events
  50. 50. Forced-choice  Precognition tests on fixed sets of choices Ganzfeld experiment  Clairvoyance tests via sensory deprivation RemoteViewing  Clairvoyance tests involving waking states Implicit Cognition  Precognition tests using stimulus/response
  51. 51. Experimenter effect  Due to investigator bias/practices/psi Decline effect  Decay of results in successive studies File drawer effect  Bias arising from non-publication BIERMAN,, Dick J (2016): Can Results in Experimental Psychology Be Explained by Questionable Research Practices? And What to do About It, Lecture. Parapsychology Massively Open Online Course (ParaMOOC),
  52. 52. Meta Analysis  Pooling of multiple studies in order to ascertain an effect of interest and to overcome small sample sizes Masked Designs  Use of blind (or double blind) methods or implicit psi testing on participants
  53. 53. Sense of being stared at  Common psi experience/ability  Frequent claim in haunting cases  Possibly evolved from predator-prey Psi in animals  Pets sense of their owners return  Pets sense of distant intentionality SHELDRAKE, Rupert (2015), Psi in Everyday Life: Nonhuman and Human. In E Cardena (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. Inc.
  54. 54.  Reincarnation, NDE, mediumship and apparitions give convergent evidence for post-mortem survival and psi functioning  Persons having exceptional experiences (ExE) attempt to rationalize and cope with events that do not fit their belief systems  Hauntings involve recurrent apparitions, mainly characterized by imitative sounds
  55. 55.  Most apparitions are seen in normal light and appear realistic like normal persons  Poltergeists are considered to be person- centered and hauntings place-centered  Experimental designs for ascertaining the effect sizes, correlates and significance of psi phenomena are advancing through the use of REGs, meta analysis and masking
  56. 56.  Web http://maryland-paranormal.com  Tumblr http://blog.maryland-paranormal.com  Facebook https://www.facebook.com/marylandparanormalresearch/  Twitter https://twitter.com/maryparanormal  Patreon https://www.patreon.com/marylandparanormal

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