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Ghosts In History


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Ghosts in history, religion and modernity

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Ghosts In History

  1. 1. <ul><li>Presentation by Brandy Stark </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ A natural entity (a living being) that has died, crossed the supernatural barrier, and returned to the natural world as a supernatural being.” –B.Stark </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ghosts of the Living </li></ul><ul><li>Also described as an OBE (Out of Body Experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type of ghost described </li></ul><ul><li>May be intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--psy-projection --meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be accidental </li></ul><ul><li>--Person senses crisis or is in crisis situation </li></ul><ul><li>--unintentional OBE </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Apparitions </li></ul><ul><li>Most common conception of a ghost </li></ul><ul><li>Interacts with its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to the living </li></ul><ul><li>Retains a personality (though is “corporally challenged”) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Crisis Apparitions </li></ul><ul><li>One time manifestation </li></ul><ul><li>May happen in dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involves passing on important information to the living </li></ul><ul><li>Does not reappear after message is received </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Haunting/Site Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Ghost has no personality </li></ul><ul><li>Ghost does not react to surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Same event happens over and over again </li></ul><ul><li>--Similar to a video loop being replayed </li></ul><ul><li>--An area is saturated in energy from an event </li></ul><ul><li>--Event is sensed at a later time by psi-sensitives </li></ul><ul><li>--Not an “apparition,” just a projection </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Poltergeists </li></ul><ul><li>Has the ability to move objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create fires, scratching noises </li></ul><ul><li>Apportation (movement) of objects </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Written between 2750 and 2500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest known ghost story? </li></ul><ul><li>Nergal…immediately opened up a hole now to the underworld. The ghost of Enkidu issued from the darkness like a dream. They tried to embrace, to kiss one another. They traded words, groaning at one another… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tell me, beloved, tell me, friend, tell me the ways of the underworld that you’ve seen.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will not tell you friend…I will sit down, I will weep.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ My body, that gave your heart joy to touch, vermin eat it up like old clothes. My body, that gave your heart joy to touch, is filled with dirt.” </li></ul><ul><li>Table XII, column iii, iv. Trans. By John Gardner and John Maier. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Complicated Soul existence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double ( Ka or Ba) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit called the khu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power (life force?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At death: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow departed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double ( Ka) lived in the tomb with the body, and was there visited by the soul (when visiting from heaven.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The soul was a material thing. Soul and Ka partook of the funeral offerings which were brought to the tomb(meat and drink). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offerings (food, incense, other comforts) were necessary to keep the soul-parts from wandering in the streets </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>A husband complains about his dead wife. Though gone for three years, she still brings him troubles. </li></ul><ul><li>He attempts to remind her of his own merits and her good treatment when alive. He denounces her poor treatment of him. </li></ul><ul><li>To make his complaint known, he wrote it upon papyrus and read it at her tomb. Then he tied it to the figurine representing his wife. Since her double was there, she would read the writing. </li></ul><ul><li>The final outcome is unknown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally published by Prisse, Monuments Égyptiens , Paris, 1817, pl. 24. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Belief was that the soul inhabited grave, which served as a passage through two worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Kept spirit alive through the use of name recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits needed to be honored </li></ul><ul><li>Exorcism: The Greek shaman Apollonius of Tyana (first century A.D.) was known to perform successful exorcisms. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Odyssey, Homer. Crewman Elpenor died on the return voyage and his ghost plead with Odysseus to bury him: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Leave me not behind thee unwept and unburied as thou goest thence, and turn not away from me, lest haply I bring the wrath of the gods upon thee. Nay, burn me with my armor, all that is mine, and heap up a mound for me on the shore of the grey sea, in memory of an unhappy man, that men yet to be may learn of me. Fulfill this my prayer, and fix upon the mound my oar wherewith I rowed in life when I was among my comrades.” ( Ody . 11.72-78) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Odysseus agrees, as the ghost can find no peace until the burial is completed. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Odyssey , Book 24: Slaying of the suitors </li></ul><ul><li>This gives insight to afterlife concepts of the Greeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Meanwhile Cyllenian Hermes called forth the spirits of the wooers. He held in his hands his wand…with this he roused and led the spirits, and they followed gibbering…. past the gates of the sun and the land of dreams, and …came to where the spirits dwell, phantoms of men who have done with toils. Here they found the spirit of Achilles, son of Peleus, and those of Patroclus, of peerless Antilochus, and of Aias, who in comeliness and form was the goodliest of all the Danaans after the peerless son of Peleus….( Ody . 24.1-20) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Shades ( umbrae, imagines , and species )of the dead, honored by festivals throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Were intangible </li></ul><ul><li>Possession: A man names Eleazar was said to have performed many exorcisms, delivering men of the spirits that possessed them, and doing so in front of the emperor Vespasian . </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Manes ( Di manes ): generally benevolent, but could be indeterminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the dead who died violently or prematurely took out their anger on their fellow dead in Hades according to the Apocolycyntosis of Seneca and the Natural History of Pliny. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lares: If good </li></ul><ul><li>Lemures (larvae): If bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As defined by St. Augustine, City of God. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Lemuria (Ovid: origin came from Remuria, a festival instituted by Romulus to appease the ghost his murdered twin, Remus). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans offered to the dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking without shoes (acknowledge burial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banging of metal pots/pans to ward off evil spirits by paterfamilias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parentalia: described by Ovid in the Fasti (2.533), which was for the ancestral Di manes . </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Cicero, On Divination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[The poet] Simonides, having seen the body of an unknown man lying unburied, buried him. He then planned to go on a sea voyage, but was warned not to go by a vision of the man whom he had buried. The vision told him that if he were to go on the sea voyage, he would perish in a shipwreck. And so Simonides did not go, but those who sailed perished. (1.27) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Ghosts exist; should not be consulted </li></ul><ul><li>From the 613 Mitzvot (Commandments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to consult ovoth (ghosts) (Lev. 19:31) (CCN170). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to consult yid'onim (wizards) (Lev. 19:31) (CCN171). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to practice kisuf (magic using herbs, stones and objects that people use) (Deut. 18:10) (CCN168). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to practice kessem (a general term for magical practices) (Deut. 18:10) (CCN167). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to practice the art of a chover chaver (casting spells over snakes and scorpions) (Deut. 18:11) (CCN169). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to enquire of an ob (a ghost) (Deut. 18:11) (CCN172). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to seek the maytim (dead) (Deut. 18:11) (CCN174). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to enquire of a yid'oni (wizard) (Deut. 18:11) (CCN173). </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Hebrew: ovoth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common: dybbuk   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dybbuk: attaches to a living person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term means: &quot;to cling&quot; or &quot;cleave&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not always bad: spirit guides who assist those on earth will do so for a time </li></ul><ul><li>Possession is possible: ghosts are suffering from unfinished earthly business.  Ghosts are drawn to people who have similar desires/suffering as their body and souls are in disunion, thus able to be possessed </li></ul><ul><li>Exorcism: ministered by a rabbi experienced in practical Kabbala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 people, recitation of Psalm 91 three times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blowing of a shofar (trumpet) sound will help separate the ghost from the person's body, so that communication with the ghost can take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the ghost feels safe, an attempt is made to help the ghost with whatever business that had been left incomplete </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Samuel (18:10): King Saul is attacked by a bad spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul...&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I Kings 22:20-23 (via Elijah) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 And the LORD said, 'Who will entice Ahab into attacking Ramoth Gilead and going to his death there?'       &quot;One suggested this, and another that. 21 Finally, a spirit came forward, stood before the LORD and said, 'I will entice him.' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  22 &quot; 'By what means?' the LORD asked.       &quot; 'I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets,' he said.       &quot; 'You will succeed in enticing him,' said the LORD. 'Go and do it.' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  23 &quot;So now the LORD has put a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours. The LORD has decreed disaster for you.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>;&version=31; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Saul and the Witch of Endor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel I (28: 3 – 25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(8) So Saul … said,&quot;Divine for me by a spirit and bring up for me whomever I shall name to you.&quot; … (11)Then the woman said, &quot;Whom shall I bring up for you?&quot; He said, &quot;Bring up Samuel for me.&quot; … And the woman said to Saul, &quot;I see a god coming up out of the earth.&quot; … &quot;An old man is coming up, and he is wrapped in a robe.&quot; And Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he bowed with his face to the ground and paid homage. </li></ul><ul><li>  (15)Then Samuel said to Saul, &quot;Why have you disturbed me by bringing me up?&quot; Saul answered, &quot;I am in great distress, for the Philistines are warring against me, and God has turned away from me … I have summoned you to tell me what I shall do.&quot; …Because you did not obey the voice of the LORD and did not carry out his fierce wrath against Amalek, therefore the LORD has done this thing to you this day. (19)Moreover, the LORD will give Israel also with you into the hand of the Philistines, and tomorrow you and your sons shall be with me…&quot; </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Henry Fuseli; Samuel appearing to Saul in the Presence of the Witch of Endor , 1777. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Christianity, (fundamental) -- upon death, one will either be in heaven or hell. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, there is no place left for a ghost to exist </li></ul><ul><li>Based on New Testament: has many stories of demons that are cast out (exorcism) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains an “anti-ghost story” </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Lazarus and Dives (rich man) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only found in Luke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular as it is one of the more vivid descriptions of the Afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luke 16: 19 – 31 </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>  (19)There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: (20)And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, ( 21)And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. </li></ul><ul><li>(22)And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;  (23)And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. </li></ul><ul><li>[The rich man begs to have comfort and is denied] </li></ul><ul><li>(27)Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house:  (28) For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. </li></ul><ul><li>…  (31)And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Catholicism: May allow for more of a ghostly concept because of Purgatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purgatory's cleansing process is similar to how ghosts suffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remaining earthbound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interacting with the living </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>state of trauma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concludes with peace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Ghosts are part of popular religion </li></ul><ul><li>Re-enforce church views: confession, sin, excommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Included ghosts visiting from Purgatory, Hell, and Heaven </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Robert, son of Robert de Bolteby of Killeburne, roamed the streets in his dead body after sundown. The town folks, terrified of this unnatural occurrence, cowered in fear. Their dogs, on the other hand, walked boldly after the dead man, barking at him as he passed. After a time, a group of young men decided to end the madness. Though they stood together in a group, all but two fled at the site of Robert. Of the two, one had the bravery to grab and pin the revenant and ordered the other to call the local clergymen. </li></ul><ul><li>The specter was called upon to confess his sins. Typical to the ghost-nature that defies living logic, the encapsulated spirit spoke in a hollow voice that seemed to emanate from deep within the corpse‘s gut; an eerie sound, to be sure, that was perhaps meant to remind the hearer of the supernatural nature Robert had fallen into. Yet, even with this odd form of communication, he could be absolved of his sins and at last found rest for both soul and body. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Enlightenment Era: removes much belief of ghosts </li></ul><ul><li>Countered with the rise of Spiritualism: 1850’s </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritualism continues to increase during times of modern warfare </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Based on Freudian concepts and abnormal physical and psychological states </li></ul><ul><li>Mourning and Melancolia, F reud: ghosts are psychological entities, a process that allows the mind of the mourner to let go of the past and the recently deceased </li></ul><ul><li>Salvador Dali: Portrait of my Dead Brother </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Freud: For some, grieving forced internalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>guilt and emotions that should be forgotten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fragments of memory to which the living, through attachment, refused to let go </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ghosts did not exist externally; they were figments of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Humankind haunted itself </li></ul><ul><li>The Dead Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Edvard Munch 1899-1900 (130 Kb); Oil on canvas, 39 3/8 x 35 3/8 in </li></ul><ul><li>Kunsthalle, Bremen </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Meanwhile, altered states of reality explored </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysical compared with “reality” (exploration of mind/body/soul connection) </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization, new cultural contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Ghosts: souls of people who died before their time, usually tragically </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms: Gross and subtle body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross (physical body) dies, essence remains in subtle body until remaining time is used up and a new body can be inhabited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghosts are in this world but suffer; senses intact, but no body to interact with the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cremation prevents bodily possession of the dead by ghosts (treat earthly addictions) </li></ul><ul><li>Possession is possible when individuals weakened in times of stress (ghost illness) and must be ritually released from possession </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Akashic Records : We live in a type of spiritual ether that imprints energy of actions through time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible to re-played or see these records by those with psychic abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also possible to see ghosts/haunts using the power of the third eye </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shiva captures ghosts, Hanuman protects </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Hungry ghosts: One of the lower levels of existence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always hungry; food tastes terrible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pali canon texts describe consecrating food for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lust for earthly desires (can allow for possession) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without physical bodies, they cannot obtain satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remain around some out of love and concern </li></ul><ul><li>Do not understand their own deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Self-created fear, guilt, shame (self-condemnation) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghost Festival (seventh month): rituals designed to ease the suffering of ghosts </li></ul><ul><li>In Buddhism, hungry ghosts are simply suffering spirits who should be treated with compassion and not feared </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Pali Canon: Petavatthu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (PTS: Pv 3; verses 14-25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the walls they stand, & at crossroads. At door posts they stand, returning to their old homes. But when a meal with plentiful food & drink is served, no one remembers them: Such is the kamma of living beings. Thus those who feel sympathy for their dead relatives give timely donations of proper food & drink — exquisite, clean — [thinking:] &quot;May this be for our relatives. May our relatives be happy!&quot; And those who have gathered there, the assembled shades of the relatives, with appreciation give their blessing for the plentiful food & drink: &quot;May our relatives live long because of whom we have gained [this gift]. We have been honored, and the donors are not without reward!&quot; For there [in their realm] there's no farming, no herding of cattle, no commerce, no trading with money. They live on what is given here, hungry shades whose time here is done. As water raining on a hill flows down to the valley, even so does what is given here benefit the dead. As rivers full of water fill the ocean full, even so does what is given here benefit the dead. &quot;He gave to me, she acted on my behalf, they were my relatives, companions, friends&quot;: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offerings should be given for the dead when one reflects thus on things done in the past. For no weeping, no sorrowing no other lamentation benefits the dead whose relatives persist in that way. But when this offering is given, well-placed in the Sangha, it works for their long-term benefit and they profit immediately. In this way the proper duty to relatives has been shown, great honor has been done to the dead, and monks have been given strength: The merit you've acquired isn't small. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Does not teach the existence of ghosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive superstition from pre-Islamic times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the spirit of a person remains in the grave, or in a holding place, until Judgment Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest: jinn , not to be ghosts or angels, but beings that dwell in the unseen, created before mankind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some good, some bad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evil jinn can cause mental illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause trickery (appear in the form of the dead) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only recitation of the Quran rids of this evil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Rise of interest in 1860s </li></ul><ul><li>Photography: Unknown images appeared on glass film plates </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, frauds learned how to create double exposures by recycling glass plates </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritualism/Psychic Research organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Many became disbelievers as other “mediums” were revealed as frauds </li></ul><ul><li>Interest dies off post 1940s </li></ul>
  39. 40. Brandy Stark, 2001
  40. 41. Brandy Stark, 2004
  41. 42. Brandy Stark, 2006
  42. 43. <ul><li>TV and popular interest </li></ul><ul><li>New mediums and technology available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unregulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New interest in the paranormal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising interest in the 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(La Llorna, Brandy Stark, 2002) </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Technology allows the creation of sublime images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermo-imagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranormal Pucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film Cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IR/thermometers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued Advances </li></ul><ul><li>The Veil by John L Yarbro Jr </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>*Television Shows </li></ul><ul><li>*Ghost Hunting workshops/conferences </li></ul><ul><li>*Ghost hunting groups – explosion </li></ul><ul><li>No Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>No standards of ethics/morals </li></ul><ul><li>Mimicry of what is viewed </li></ul><ul><li>Everyman vs. academic </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>A pseudoscience is an established body of knowledge which masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy which it would not otherwise be able to achieve on its own terms; it is often known as fringe- or alternative  science. The most important of its defects is usually the lack of the carefully controlled and thoughtfully interpreted experiments which provide the foundation of the natural sciences and which contribute to their advancement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johathan Hope: Theodorus' Spiral (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Chart: </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>They appear across space and time </li></ul><ul><li>The interest in ghosts continues to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Better technology, or personal experiences, may help bring us closer to understanding them. </li></ul><ul><li>They remain one of the last great unknown “final frontiers” in human history. They link past, present and future into a single question: What does happen when we die? </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Bulfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch’s Mythology, Illustrated. New York: Avenel, 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Brenner, Frank and David Walsh. &quot;Andre Breton and the Problems of Twentieth Century Culture.&quot; World Sociality Web Site: April 19, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Breton, Andre, trans. Simon Watson Taylor. Surrealism and Painting. Massachusetts: MFA Publication, 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Budett, Carolyn and Pamela Thurschwell. Nicola Bown, ed. The Victorian Supernatural. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Davidson, Hilda R. Ellis, ed. “Greek and Roman Ghosts,” The Folklore of Ghosts by W.M.S. Russell. Great Britian: Cambridge, 1981. 193-213. </li></ul><ul><li>Diehl, Gaston. The Moderns: A Treasury of Painting Throughout the World. New York, Crown Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Dodds, E.R. The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London:: University of California, 1959. </li></ul><ul><li>Dunston, A. J. ed. Essays on Roman Culture: The Todd Memorial Lectures. Sarasota: Samuel Steves Hakkert: 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>Faraone, Christopher A. “Binding and Burying the Forces of Evil: The Defensive Use of ‘VooDoo Dolls” in Ancient Greece,” Classical Antiquity v.10 (1991) 165-218. </li></ul><ul><li>Finucane, R.C. Ghosts: Appearances of the Dead and Cultural Transformation. New York: Prometheus Books, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaggi, Silvio. Modern/Postmodern: A Study in Twentieth Century Arts and Ideas. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ghosts and Buddhism” As retrieved on October 10, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ghosts and Hinduism” As retrieved on October 10, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ghosts and Islam” As retrieved on October 10, 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Gustave Moreau&quot;, The Artchive. As retrieved on April 12, 2005 from </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton, George Heard. Painting and Sculpture in Europe 1880-1940. Maryland: Penguin Books, 1967. </li></ul><ul><li>Humphries, Rolfe, trans. Ovid’s Metamorphosis. Bloomington: Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>University , 1955. </li></ul>
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