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Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya)
India's basic information, etymology, geography, biodiversity, government, economy, brief history and culture

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  1. 1. (Bharat Ganrajya)
  2. 2.  Basic Information  Etymology  Geography  Biodiversity  Government  Economy  History  Culture
  3. 3. Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) "Truth Alone Triumphs" Anthem: Jana Gana Mana "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People" National song: Vande Mataram "I Bow to Thee, Mother" Capital: New Delhi Largest city: Mumbai (population/area)
  4. 4. Official languages: Hindi, English Recognized regional languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, G ujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Man ipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punja bi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
  5. 5. Legislature: Parliament of India - Upper house: Rajya Sabha - Lower house: Lok Sabha Independence from the United Kingdom - Dominion: 15 August 1947 - Republic: 26 January 1950
  6. 6. Flag of India
  7. 7. Official Emblem
  8. 8. Area controlled by India shown in dark green. The claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
  9. 9. Indus, originates from the Old Persian word Hinduš Sindhu (Sanskrit word), historical local appellation for the Indus River Indoi, term ancient Greeks used to refer to the Indians; translates as "the people of the Indus"
  10. 10. Bharat (geographical term), recognized by the Constitution of India as official name for the country; is used by many Indian languages in its variations Hindustan, originally a Persian word; means "Land of the Hindus"
  11. 11.  North ◦ China ◦ Nepal ◦ Bhutan  East ◦ Bangladesh ◦ Myanmar ◦ Bay of Bengal  South ◦ Palk Strait ◦ Gulf of Mannār ◦ Indian Ocean  West ◦ Arabian Sea ◦ Pakistan
  12. 12.  comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent  lies atop the minor Indian tectonic plate  India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometers (4,700 mi) in length
  13. 13.  the Ganges  the Brahmaputra ◦the Yamuna ◦the Kosi
  14. 14. The Ganges in Varanasi
  15. 15. A view across the Brahmaputra near Sukleswar Ghat, Guwahati, Assam, India
  16. 16.  the Godavari  the Mahandi  the Kaveri  the Krishna  the Narmada  the Tapti
  17. 17. The Mouth of the Godavari river emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
  18. 18. The Mahandi
  19. 19. The river Kaveri in Kodagu, Karnataka
  20. 20. Krishna River Gorge
  21. 21. The Narmada river bank near Jabalpur
  22. 22. Tapti river at Haripura in Surat district
  23. 23.  marshy Rann of Kutch of Western India  the alluvial Sundarbans delta of Eastern India
  24. 24. Rann of Kutch
  25. 25. Sundarbans
  26. 26.  the Lakshadweep  the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  27. 27. Aerial view of the Agatti Airport in Lakshadweep
  28. 28. Aerial view of Andaman Islands
  29. 29. strongly influenced by: ◦Himalayas ◦Thar Desert
  30. 30. Karakoram Range in the Himalayas It lies within the Himalayan mountain system, which forms part of India’s northern border.
  31. 31. Thar Desert As seen in Rajasthan, India
  32. 32.  tropical wet  tropical dry  subtropical humid  montane
  33. 33.  contains three biodiversity hotspots  one of 17 megadiverse countries  hosts 8.6% of all mammalian, 13.7% of all avian, 7.9% of all reptilian, 6% of all amphibian, 12.2% of all piscine, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species
  34. 34.  habitat ranges from the tropical rainforest to coniferous forest  also include moist deciduous sal forests, dry deciduous teak forests and babul-dominated thorn forest  contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened species
  35. 35. Asiatic Lion The Gīr National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarāt, India, is the only remaining habitat of the Asiatic lion, a species that was nearly extinct in the early 1900s.
  36. 36. Bengal tiger A Bengal tiger at Bandhavgarh National Park
  37. 37. Indian white-rumped vulture Nearly went extinct by ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-laced cattle
  38. 38.  human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered wildlife  1972-India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness  1980-Forest Conservation Act was enacted  1988-amendments added in Forest Conservation Act
  39. 39.  federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India  a constitutional republic and representative democracy  federalism defines power distribution
  40. 40.  federal government comprises three branches: ◦ Executive  President-head of state  Prime Minister-head of government  consists of the president, the vice-president, and the Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister
  41. 41. Pranab Mukherjee Current President of India
  42. 42. Manmohan Singh Current Prime Minister of India
  43. 43. The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the president of India.
  44. 44. ◦ Legislative  bicameral parliament  operates under a Westminsterstyle parliamentary system  comprises of:  the upper house called the Rajya Sabha ("Council of States") with 245 members  the lower called the Lok Sabha ("House of the People")with 545 members
  45. 45. ◦ Judicial  has a unitary three-tier independent judiciary  comprises of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, 24 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts
  46. 46.  2500 B.C.  The Indus Valley civilization developed around the valley of the Indus River (now in Pakistan).  2000 B.C.  The Indus collapsed. Valley civilization
  47. 47.  Around 1500 B.C.  The Aryan people invaded India from the north.  326 B.C.  Alexander the Great of Macedon (northeastern Greece) crossed the Indus River into India.
  48. 48.  A.D. 50  Trade flourished between India and the Roman Empire.  320-550  India was ruled by the Gupta Empire.
  49. 49.  1526  The rule of the Mogul Empire began.  1600s  Holland, Great Britain and France established key trading posts in India.
  50. 50.  1638  Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan began the construction of the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaz.  1858  The British had overthrown the Moguls and took control of India.
  51. 51.  1915  Mohandas Gandhi launched a campaign of nonviolent resistance against the British rule in India.  1947  India gained its independence from the British and was divided into two countries, India and Muslim-controlled Pakistan.
  52. 52.  1948  Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated.  1966  Indira Gandhi (not related to Mahatma) became the Prime Minister and one of the first women elected to lead a nation.
  53. 53.  1983  India won the cricket world cup.  1998  India tested its first nuclear weapon, one of only seven nations to have done so.
  54. 54.  2000  India's billion. population exceeded one  2004–2005 A series of natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, brought destruction to southern coastal communities.
  55. 55.  2007  Pratibha Patil became the first female President of India.
  56. 56.  Art and Architecture  Literature  Performing Arts  Motion Pictures  Society  Religion  Clothing  Cuisine
  57. 57.  Much of Indian architecture blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.
  58. 58. Akshardham Temple in Delhi It was completed in 2005 and one of the largest Hindu temples in the world.
  59. 59. Chowmahalla Palace in Hyderabad
  60. 60. The famous jaali from the 16th-century Sidi Saiyyed mosque built by Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, in Ahmedabad
  61. 61. The Jagannath Temple One of the four holiest places (Char Dhams) of Hinduism, in Puri, Odisha.
  62. 62. The North Block in New Delhi This houses key government offices, built along with Lutyens' Delhi.
  63. 63. The Taj Mahal in Agra One of the world's most famous structures which Shah Jahan built as a memorial to his wife.
  64. 64. The earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1400 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language.  Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics as the Mahābhārata and the Ramayana, the dramas of Kālidāsa such as the Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā) 
  65. 65. Mahabharata A 16th-century manuscript of the Mahabharata portrays a chariot fight between two related noble families, the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
  66. 66. Radha and Krishna in the Grove In this painting, Radha and Krishna have met in a grove. The painting, (1780), is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England.
  67. 67. Ramayana Rama seated with Sita, fanned by Lakshmana, while Hanuman pays his respects.
  68. 68. Rama and Sita Rama is shown here with his wife, Sita, in a bas-relief sculpture from a 9th-century Hindu temple in Java, Indonesia.
  69. 69. The Recognition of Śakuntalā Shakuntala writes to Dushyanta
  70. 70.  Kamasutra, the famous book about sexual intercourse also originated in India.
  71. 71.  19th century-Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions.  20th century-Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore
  72. 72. Rabindranath Tagore with Albert Einstein
  73. 73.  Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles  Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: ◦ northern Hindustani ◦ southern Carnatic schools  Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms
  74. 74.  Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue  Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms  Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue
  75. 75. A Kuchipudi dance performance is accompanied by Carnatic vocalizations.
  76. 76.  The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.
  77. 77. My Name is Khan
  78. 78. 3 Idiots
  79. 79.  Traditional Indian society is defined by social hierarchy.  Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent.
  80. 80.  pervasive in India  encompasses non-Hindus as well  A caste (jati in Sanskrit) is a social class to which a person belongs at birth and which is ranked against other castes, typically on a continuum of perceived purity and pollution.
  81. 81.  In order of hierarchy ◦ Brahmins (priests and scholars) ◦ Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers) ◦ Vaisyas (merchants, farmers, and traders) ◦ Sudras (laborers, including artisans, servants, and serfs). ◦ Untouchables or Harijans (“People of God,” a term first used by Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi).
  82. 82. Indian Caste System
  83. 83. Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas  many women in India wed before reaching 18  Almost all Hindu marriages in India are arranged  almost all arranged marriages occur between people of the same caste  only a handful of young people make “love marriages” across caste lines, and many suffer socially when they do so 
  84. 84.  Diwali  Holi  Ganesh  Durga Chathurti  Thai Pongal  Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan Puja  Christmas  Vaisakhi
  85. 85.  popularly known as the "festival of lights"  a five-day Hindu festival  involves the lighting of small clay lamps filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil  In the Gregorian calendar, Diwali falls between mid-October and mid-November
  86. 86. Arrangement of diyas on Diwali night.
  87. 87.  Hindu festival celebrated on the birthday (rebirth) of Lord Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati  also known as Ganeshutsav (festival of Ganesh)  lasts for 10 days  the date usually falls between 19 August and 20 September
  88. 88. A Ganesh Procession in Mumbai, India prior to immersion.
  89. 89. Ganesh Visarjan in Mumbai
  90. 90. a harvest festival celebrated in South India at the end of the harvest season  marks the beginning of the northward journey of the Sun from its southernmost-limit  coincides with the festival Makara Sankranthi  usually held from January 13–16 in the Gregorian calendar 
  91. 91. Kolam decorations in front of house during Thai Pongal
  92. 92. Pongal being cooked in a city home.
  93. 93.  one of the most auspicious occasions for the Hindus  a harvest festival  perhaps the only Indian festival whose date always falls on the same day every year: 14 January, with some exceptions, when the festival is celebrated on 13 January or 15 January  also believed to mark the arrival of spring in India
  94. 94. Colourful kites being sold in a Shop in Lucknow
  95. 95. a spring festival celebrated as a festival of colors  as per the Hindu calendar, Holi is celebrated on the Phalguna Purnima (Full Moon), which comes in February or March in the Gregorian Calendar 
  96. 96. Colors Holi at a market in Mysore
  97. 97. Holi celebrations, Pushkar, Rajasthan
  98. 98. Group pose for a photo at a Holi celebration in Vashi, Navi Mumbai, India
  99. 99. marks the victory of Goddess Durga over the evil buffalo demon Mahishasura  epitomizes the victory of Good over Evil  includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort (Durga is an aspect of Goddess Parvati) 
  100. 100. Durga Puja at Bagbazar Sarbajanin, North Kolkata.
  101. 101. a state holiday in India, although Christianity in India is a minority  in many of the schools that are run by the Christian missionaries, children actively participate in the program  in many non-religious schools, there is tradition of Christmas celebration  also known as bada din (the big day) 
  102. 102. also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi a festival celebrated across the northern Indian subcontinent  usually celebrated on 13 April, and occasionally on 14 April, in the different regions across the world as the Sikhs migrated overseas 
  103. 103. Sikh Vaisakhi parade
  104. 104.  three national holidays: ◦ Republic Day ◦ Independence Day ◦ Gandhi Jayanti
  105. 105.  Hinduism and Buddhism both originated here.  Most people in India practice Hinduism with Islam a distant second.  Other important religions include Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, a nd Jainism.
  106. 106.  Hinduism ◦three main Hindu deities:  Brahmā  Vishnu  Shiva
  107. 107.  Buddhism ◦major world religion, founded in northeastern India ◦based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama
  108. 108.  Traditional Indian dress varies in color and style across regions and depends on various factors.  Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men.
  109. 109. Vidya Balan wearing silk sari at a wedding
  110. 110. Sonakshi Sinha in salwar kameez
  111. 111. A fully embriodered pink ghagra choli
  112. 112. A person togged in a mundu
  113. 113. A lungi clad Oriya man in Baleswar, Odisha
  114. 114. Sonu Nigam wearing sherwani at his concert
  115. 115.  Indian cuisine features an unsurpassed reliance on herbs and spices, with dishes often calling for the nuanced usage of a dozen or more condiments
  116. 116. Spices at a grocery shop in India
  117. 117. Lentils are a staple ingredient in Indian cuisine
  118. 118.  India is also known for its tandoori preparations.  The tandoor, a clay oven used in India for almost 5,000 years, grills meats to an “uncommon succulence” and produces the puffy flatbread known as naan.
  119. 119. Bukharian Tandoor
  120. 120. naan
  121. 121. Tandoori chicken is a popular grilled dish.
  122. 122. Pesarattu, a popular Andhra dish, served withkobbari pachadi (chutney made using
  123. 123. Hyderabadi Biryani from the city of Hyderabad
  124. 124. Roasted stuffed Litti from Bihar
  125. 125. Palak paneer, a dish made from spinach and paneer (cottage cheese)
  126. 126. Khaman is a popular Gujarati snack.
  127. 127. momo served in Tomato gravy
  128. 128. A bowl of thukpa
  129. 129. Saag a popular Kumauni dish from Uttarakhand is made from any of the various green vegetables like spinach and fenugreek
  130. 130. Kadhi, a spicy north Indian dish
  131. 131. Poha, a popular breakfast dish in Maharashtra
  132. 132. Spicy fish from Kerala
  133. 133. An Indian restaurant in Singapore named Komala's Little India
  134. 134. Filmi 3 Idiots “Zoobi Doobi”