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Sindhi language

Sindhi Language by Saqib Iqbal.

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Sindhi language

  2. 2. INTODUCTION • Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years. The language of the people of Sindh, after coming in contact with the Aryan, became Indo-Aryan (Prakrit). Sindhi language, therefore, has a solid base of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit, the language of India, with vocabulary from Arabic, Persian, and some Dravidian - descendants from Mediterranean sub-continent. Initially, Sindhi had close contacts with Arabic- speaking Muslims. Therefore the language adopted many of the Arabic words. • Sindhi language is an ancient language spoken in Pakistan and many other parts of the world. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan, and 12 million people in India; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, mostly spoken in the Sindh province. It is a recognized official language in Pakistan, and also an official language in India. Government of Pakistan issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages; Sindhi and Urdu.
  3. 3. There is lot of different opinions about the origin and ancestry of Sindhi language. * The First Group Believes That Sindhi Is Derived From Sanskrit * The Second Group Believes That Sindhi Is Ancients Indo-Aryan Language, Probably Having Its Origin In A Pre - sanskrit Indo- Aryan Indus-valley Language. * The Other Group Believes That sindhi Is One Of The Dravidian Language, And Has Its Roots In The Civilization Of Moen-jo- daro. ORIGIN AND ANCESTRY
  4. 4. WAY OF WRITING Sindhi can be written in more than 7 ways i.e. Laṇḍā scripts Khudabadi, Khojiki, Gurmukhi, Arabic script, Devanagari script And Gujarati script . But 3 main ways of writing are:
  5. 5. Devanagari Script The Sindhi-Devanagari script is adapted from the Sanskrit system of writing. Each character in the Devanagari system represents a syllable. It consists of either a vowel or a constant followed by the vowel. Devanagari characters are written from left to right.
  6. 6. Arabic Script The Sindhi-Arabic script is adapted from the Persian system of writing, which itself is an adaptation of the Arabic system. Arabic characters are written from right to left. The script comprises of fifty-two characters and seven diacritic signs.
  7. 7. Khudabadi Script The Khudabadi script was used for writing the Indo-Aryan Sindhi language spoken by almost 20 million people in the Sindh province of Pakistan and in India. It is no longer used. The Khudabadi script is written using sixty-nine letters, including thirty-seven consonants, ten independent vowels, nine vowel diacritics, and a set of digits from 0-9.
  8. 8. A variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by features of phonology , grammer and vocabulary. DIALECTS