INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND PREVENTION SYSTEMS P. Raja abhilash. M.Pharm. (Ph.D.) Assistant professor S.R. college of phramacy.
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS? GENERAL HAZARDS IN INDUSTRIES a) Fire accidents b) Mechanical c) Electrical d) Chemical and Pharmaceutical E) Dust explosion IMAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING BETTER INDUSTRIAL SAFETY CONCLUSION REFERENCES.
INTRODUCTIONHAZARD is a situation that posses a level of threat to life, health, property or environmentINDUSTRIAL HAZARD may be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property.SAFETY in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence of risk or injury or loss .INDUSTRIAL SAFETY refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents .
WHAT ARE INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS? Physical --noise,vibration, heat, cold,pressure, radiation, fibres,… Chemical – flammable/explosive materials, toxics, sensitising agents. Biological – dust , pathogens Psyhological – work place practices & systems, payment systems
GENERAL HAZARDS IN INDUSTRIES FIRE HAZARDS MECHANICAL HAZARDS ELECTRICAL HAZARDS CHEMICAL HAZARDS PHARMACEUTICAL HAZARDS RADIATION HAZARDS DUST EXPLOSION
FIRE HAZARDS Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction between oxygen and fuel. Combustion Slow combustion eg: cotton waste burning Rapid combustion eg: petroleum product Spontaneous combustion eg: paint, scrap The effect of fire on people take the form of skin burns . Fire can take several different forms including jet fires ,pool fires and boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion.
SOURCES OF FIRE HAZARDS Hot surfaces Combustible and flammable liquids Heat utilization equipments (over heating) Chemical process equipments Lightening Gas cylinders Ovens and furnaces Reactor Welding and cutting Spark from metal to metal contact Carelessness
Steps to be taken Don’t panic Raise the alarm Evacuate the premises Turn off the gas supply Attack the fire with extinguisher Or vacate the placeIn case of fire safe methods to be followed Stair cases only to be used for evacuation Exit doors should be closed after getting out Go down the stair case to the ground Walk do not run Encounter heavy smoke crawl on the floor, do not talk, cover the nose and mouth with a wet cloth
CONTROL OF FIRE ACCIDENTS Fire protection is an important part of good house keeping. Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing area Oxygen present in atmosphere may be reduced by dilution with gases as Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide..
Identification and control of ignition sources in areas where flammable chemicals are stored/handled/transferred. Elimination of ignition sources. Careful plant layout. Fire resistance brick walls or reinforced concrete walls.
Suitable exit facility to be provided. Adequate ventilation facility. Sprinkler with reliable water supply. Installation of sufficient fire alarms .
MECHANICAL HAZARDSOccurs due to: Large number of equipments Crowded work place conditions Frequent interaction between worker and equipment Insecurely fixed machines Worn and teared parts Failure of SOP Dangerous Parts Negligence Improper maintenance of equipmentMost common in metal industries and construction sites.
Factors responsible are: PHYSICAL – Physical capability of worker may not meet the job requirement. PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS: a) Age b) Sex c) Time d) Experience
Safety measures for Mechanical hazards All machinery must be fenced or mechanical interlocking or photocell. Machine should be fitted with emergency shut down system.
Turn key system for cleaning and for repairing. Control system override should be monitored. Operator must have a safe distance from the machine. Strictly following SOP. Stop and lock button for machines.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES BUILDING PLANNING : -- Floors must be non slippery type -- Enough space to move easily -- Easy access of workers to the safety switches SAFE MATERIAL HANDLING : --All material handling equipments should be repaired and maintained properly.
PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE DEVICES: -- Protection of head by using hard hats and helmets -- Ears by using ear muffs and plugs -- Face by using face masks
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS Electricity is the flow of electrons through a substance which allows transfer of electrical energy from one position to another.How Shocks occur?Current Level Probable Effect on Human body1 mA Slight tingling sensation.5 mA Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing.6-30 mA Painful shock, muscular control is lost.50-150 mA Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contraction and death is possible1000-4300 mA Muscular contraction and nerve damage occur. Death is most likely.10,000 mA Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death
The most frequent causes of electrical injury/death are:1.Contact with power lines2.Path to ground missing or discontinuous3.Equipment not used in manner prescribed4.Improper use of extension and flexible cords5. Electric shocks and burns due to poor indication facilities6. wiring faults and improperly wired equipments7. Sparking at loose connection
Safety Measures for electrical hazards Design a safer system Implement a safe electrical work program Observe work practice Use protective equipment Use warning labels Recheck the equipment everyday Heat producing electrical equipment Overhead electrical wire should have extra care Recheck the lines everyday Proper training to workers
PREVENTIVE MEASURES Proper maintenance of wiring and equipments. High voltage equipments should be properly enclosed. Indication of danger sign at every high voltage terminal. Safe work project Insulation, guarding , grounding, electrical protective devices.
Worker should avoid working with the equipment in wet clothes and shoes. Water supply should be far away from electrical circuits.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS Chemical hazards are: - Toxic - Corrosive - Irritant - Carcinogenic - Flammable - Mutagenic
Chemical reactions may get out of control due to: -Wrong raw materials -Raw materials with impurities -Changed operating conditions -Time delay -Equipment failure
BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY Bhopal gas tragedy, considered as one of the world’s worst industrial chemical hazard It occurred on the night of Dec 2-3,1984 at union carbide India limited pesticide plant in Bhopal water entered Tank 610 containing 42 tons of MIC. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the pressure. About 30 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas causes 8000 deaths, 5,58,125 injuries.
Effects of chemicals on exposure Skin burn Ache Anthrax Ulcer in hand, nose etc Cancer Irritation on wind pipe
Many chemicals can cause severe burns, if they come in contact with living tissue. Living tissue may be destroyed by following chemical reactions: -Dehydration by strong dehydrating agents -Digestion by strong acids and bases -Oxidation by strong oxidising agents
SOME CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND HAZARD CAUSING CHEMICALSORGAN SYMPTOMS CHEMICALSEYES Corneal and Sulphur conjunctival dioxide, disturbances hydrogen sulphideNERVOUS Drowsiness CNSSYSTEM depressantsMOUTH and Green tongue VanadiumTHROAT Salivation Mercury
Additives Health effectsAzo dyes Bladder CancerBenzene LeukemiaCaustic Soda Blindness & respiratory damageZinc salts Skin & eye damageChlorine ions Lung and Skin damagelead Lead poisoning
PREVENTIVE MEASURES Solvents used in extraction, purification of synthetic drugs and chemical analysis should be handled with care. Flammable and explosive chemicals should be kept at proper distance. Tolerance level for toxic chemicals set by federal regulation have to be followed. Suitable label to the chemicals for proper handling.
Personal protective cloth Application of cream before commencement of work. Use of Goggles. Safety regulation and protecting measures of good house keeping principles.
PHARMACEUTICAL HAZARDSSome general health hazards in manufacture of pharmaceuticals include: Dust and noise exposures Exposure to UV radiation Exposure to formaldehyde Repetitive motion disorders
Formaldehyde – may cause lung cancer, prostate cancer. Acute exposure may cause pulmonary edema and pneumonia leading to death. Also causes allergic dermatitis Repetitive motion disorder– motion associated with packing and filling could lead to Carpal tunnel syndrome or Tendonitis.
Hazards from handling crude drugs and it’s extracts eg: Ipecacunha. Solvents eg: Benzene Alkaloids eg: scopolamine, emetine Toxic intermediate Final product eg: Local anaesthetic Miscellaneous Hazards Radiant energy Bacteria and viruses
DUST EXPLOSION The term dust is used if the maximum particle size of the solids in the mixture is 500 mm . Dust explosion is a rapid combustion of a dust cloud. Drying, milling and blending operations generate atmospheric and fugitive dust emissions. During wet granulation, compounding and tablet coating, hazardous air pollutants may be released to the atmosphere or in the workplace as process or fugitive emissions.
IMAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING BETTER INDUSTRIAL SAFETY In all places of employment: passage ways, store rooms and service rooms shall be kept clean and orderly in a sanitary condition.
Every structure is required to have load bearing when using for storage.
Floor of every work room shall be maintained clean, dry condition.
Floor hole into which persons can accidentally walk shall be protected by a cover that leaves no opening more than 1 inch wide.
Treads on all stairs shall be reasonably slip resistant. This picture illustrates adequate slip resistance in place.
Employees must be able to open an exit door from inside at all times without keys or special knowledge even in the dark.
The door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in direction of exit travel if the room is designed for more than 50 people or if the room is a high hazard area.
CONCLUSION Review of safety awareness and safety training requirements of plant employees with respect to hazards present in the plant. Review of constructor safety awareness and recommend suitable improvement measures. Systematic training of employees is necessary. In addition, there should be a committee in each department , responsible for safety in their departments.
REFERENCES1. Pharmaceutical production and management by c.v.s subrahmanyam pg: 393-4122. Hazard analysis by HACCP in safety management systems Q.A volume-2 pg: 200-2113. Perry’s chemical engineering handbook by Robert H.perry Don.W.Green, seventh edition pg:26-49