1. INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND
P. Raja abhilash. M.Pharm. (Ph.D.)
S.R. college of phramacy.
WHAT ARE INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS?
GENERAL HAZARDS IN INDUSTRIES
a) Fire accidents
d) Chemical and Pharmaceutical
E) Dust explosion
IMAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING BETTER INDUSTRIAL
HAZARD is a situation that posses a level of threat to life,
health, property or environment
INDUSTRIAL HAZARD may be defined as any condition
produced by industries that may cause injury or death to
personnel or loss of product or property.
SAFETY in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence of
risk or injury or loss .
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY refers to the protection of workers from
the danger of industrial accidents .
4. WHAT ARE INDUSTRIAL
Physical --noise,vibration, heat, cold,pressure,
Chemical – flammable/explosive materials,
toxics, sensitising agents.
Biological – dust , pathogens
Psyhological – work place practices &
systems, payment systems
5. GENERAL HAZARDS IN
6. FIRE HAZARDS
Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction between oxygen and
Slow combustion eg: cotton waste burning
Rapid combustion eg: petroleum product
Spontaneous combustion eg: paint, scrap
The effect of fire on people take the form of skin burns .
Fire can take several different forms including jet fires ,pool
fires and boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion.
7. SOURCES OF FIRE HAZARDS
Combustible and flammable liquids
Heat utilization equipments (over heating)
Chemical process equipments
Ovens and furnaces
Welding and cutting
Spark from metal to metal contact
9. Steps to be taken
Raise the alarm
Evacuate the premises
Turn off the gas supply
Attack the fire with extinguisher
Or vacate the place
In case of fire safe methods to be followed
Stair cases only to be used for evacuation
Exit doors should be closed after getting out
Go down the stair case to the ground
Walk do not run
Encounter heavy smoke crawl on the floor, do not talk, cover the
nose and mouth with a wet cloth
12. CONTROL OF FIRE ACCIDENTS
Fire protection is an important part of good
Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing area
Oxygen present in atmosphere may be reduced
by dilution with gases as Nitrogen, Carbon
13. Identification and control of ignition sources in
areas where flammable chemicals are
Elimination of ignition sources.
Careful plant layout.
Fire resistance brick walls or reinforced
14. Suitable exit facility to be provided.
Adequate ventilation facility.
Sprinkler with reliable water supply.
Installation of sufficient fire alarms .
15. MECHANICAL HAZARDS
Occurs due to:
Large number of equipments
Crowded work place conditions
Frequent interaction between worker and equipment
Insecurely fixed machines
Worn and teared parts
Failure of SOP
Improper maintenance of equipment
Most common in metal industries and construction sites.
16. Factors responsible are:
PHYSICAL – Physical capability of worker
may not meet the job requirement.
17. Safety measures for Mechanical hazards
All machinery must be fenced or mechanical
interlocking or photocell.
Machine should be fitted with emergency shut down
18. Turn key system for cleaning and for repairing.
Control system override should be monitored.
Operator must have a safe distance from the machine.
Strictly following SOP.
Stop and lock button for machines.
19. PREVENTIVE MEASURES
BUILDING PLANNING :
-- Floors must be non slippery type
-- Enough space to move easily
-- Easy access of workers to the safety
SAFE MATERIAL HANDLING :
--All material handling equipments should be
repaired and maintained properly.
20. PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE DEVICES:
-- Protection of head by using hard hats and
-- Ears by using ear muffs and plugs
-- Face by using face masks
21. ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electricity is the flow of electrons through a substance
which allows transfer of electrical energy from one
position to another.
How Shocks occur?
Current Level Probable Effect on Human body
1 mA Slight tingling sensation.
5 mA Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing.
6-30 mA Painful shock, muscular control is lost.
50-150 mA Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe
muscular contraction and death is possible
1000-4300 mA Muscular contraction and nerve damage
occur. Death is most likely.
10,000 mA Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable
22. The most frequent causes of electrical injury/death are:
1.Contact with power lines
2.Path to ground missing or discontinuous
3.Equipment not used in manner prescribed
4.Improper use of extension and flexible cords
5. Electric shocks and burns due to poor indication
6. wiring faults and improperly wired equipments
7. Sparking at loose connection
23. Safety Measures for electrical hazards
Design a safer system
Implement a safe electrical work program
Observe work practice
Use protective equipment
Use warning labels
Recheck the equipment everyday
Heat producing electrical equipment
Overhead electrical wire should have extra care
Recheck the lines everyday
Proper training to workers
24. PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Proper maintenance of wiring and equipments.
High voltage equipments should be properly
Indication of danger sign at every high voltage
Safe work project
Insulation, guarding , grounding,
electrical protective devices.
25. Worker should avoid working with the
equipment in wet clothes and shoes.
Water supply should be far away from
27. Chemical reactions may get out of control due
-Wrong raw materials
-Raw materials with impurities
-Changed operating conditions
28. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
Bhopal gas tragedy, considered as one of the world’s worst
industrial chemical hazard
It occurred on the night of Dec 2-3,1984 at union carbide
India limited pesticide plant in Bhopal
water entered Tank 610 containing 42 tons of MIC. The
resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside
the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the pressure.
About 30 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) escaped
from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes.
A leak of methyl isocyanate gas causes 8000 deaths, 5,58,125
31. Effects of chemicals on exposure
Ulcer in hand, nose etc
Irritation on wind pipe
32. Many chemicals can cause severe burns, if
they come in contact with living tissue.
Living tissue may be destroyed by following
-Dehydration by strong dehydrating agents
-Digestion by strong acids and bases
-Oxidation by strong oxidising agents
33. SOME CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND
HAZARD CAUSING CHEMICALS
ORGAN SYMPTOMS CHEMICALS
EYES Corneal and Sulphur
NERVOUS Drowsiness CNS
MOUTH and Green tongue Vanadium
THROAT Salivation Mercury
34. Additives Health effects
Azo dyes Bladder Cancer
Caustic Soda Blindness & respiratory damage
Zinc salts Skin & eye damage
Chlorine ions Lung and Skin damage
lead Lead poisoning
35. PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Solvents used in extraction, purification of
synthetic drugs and chemical analysis should
be handled with care.
Flammable and explosive chemicals should be
kept at proper distance.
Tolerance level for toxic chemicals set by
federal regulation have to be followed.
Suitable label to the chemicals for proper
36. Personal protective cloth
Application of cream before commencement
Use of Goggles.
Safety regulation and protecting measures of
good house keeping principles.
37. PHARMACEUTICAL HAZARDS
Some general health hazards in manufacture of
Dust and noise exposures
Exposure to UV radiation
Exposure to formaldehyde
Repetitive motion disorders
38. Formaldehyde – may cause lung cancer,
prostate cancer. Acute exposure may cause
pulmonary edema and pneumonia leading to
death. Also causes allergic dermatitis
Repetitive motion disorder– motion associated
with packing and filling could lead to Carpal
tunnel syndrome or Tendonitis.
39. Hazards from handling crude drugs and it’s
extracts eg: Ipecacunha.
Solvents eg: Benzene
Alkaloids eg: scopolamine, emetine
Final product eg: Local anaesthetic
Bacteria and viruses
40. DUST EXPLOSION
The term dust is used if the maximum particle size of
the solids in the mixture is 500 mm .
Dust explosion is a rapid combustion of a dust cloud.
Drying, milling and blending operations generate
atmospheric and fugitive dust emissions.
During wet granulation, compounding and tablet
coating, hazardous air pollutants may be released to
the atmosphere or in the workplace as process or
44. IMAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING
BETTER INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
In all places of
passage ways, store
rooms and service
rooms shall be kept
clean and orderly in a
45. Every structure is
required to have load
bearing when using for
46. Floor of every work
room shall be
maintained clean, dry
47. Floor hole into which
persons can accidentally
walk shall be protected
by a cover that leaves
no opening more than 1
48. Treads on all stairs
shall be reasonably
This picture illustrates
resistance in place.
49. Employees must be able
to open an exit door
from inside at all times
without keys or special
knowledge even in the
50. The door that
connects any room to
an exit route must
swing out in direction
of exit travel if the
room is designed for
more than 50 people
or if the room is a
high hazard area.
Review of safety awareness and safety training
requirements of plant employees with respect
to hazards present in the plant.
Review of constructor safety awareness and
recommend suitable improvement measures.
Systematic training of employees is necessary.
In addition, there should be a committee in
each department , responsible for safety in
1. Pharmaceutical production and
management by c.v.s subrahmanyam
2. Hazard analysis by HACCP in safety
management systems Q.A volume-2 pg:
3. Perry’s chemical engineering handbook
by Robert H.perry Don.W.Green,
seventh edition pg:26-49