IDUSTRIAL HAZARDS DUE TO
FIRE ACCIDDENTS, MECHANICAL
AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS
PREPARED BY :
KOSARAJU SAI VIVEK,
Jss college of pharmacy
It can be defined as any condition produced by or
in industries that may cause injury or death to
personal or loss of product or property.
Hazards may be due to
Heat & Cold
Fire & Explosion
Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction between
oxygen and fuel.
Slow combustion eg: cotton waste burning
Rapid combustion eg: petroleum product
Spontaneous combustion eg: paint, scrap
NFPA classification system
The NFPA diamond is an easy way to determine the safety risks
associated with hazardous materials. According to the red section
of the diamond, The following numbering system is used to
0 - will not burn
1 - must be preheated to burn
2 -ignites when moderately heated
3 -ignites at normal temperature
4 -extremely flammable
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES
1. Class A fires:- fires that occur in ordinary material
such as wood, paper rages, rubber and rubbish.
2. Class B fires:- with flammable material like
oil, paint, gasoline etc…….
3. Class C fires:- with gases and vapours .
4. Class D fires:- with combustible metals such as
magnesium, titanium, lithium, sodium etc….
5. Class E fires:- involved electricity in any form..
SOURCES OF FIRE HAZARDS
Combustible and flammable liquids
Heat utilization equipment's (over heating)
Chemical process equipment's
Ovens and furnaces
Welding and cutting
Spark from metal to metal contact
CAUSES OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION
1. Improper storage of flammable oils, greases and fluids,
combustible wastes etc.
2. Smoking by employees.
3. Poor house keeping.
4. Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment and
5. Explosive gas leakage.
6. Ignition of gases, vapours or combustible dusts.
7. Inadequate of electric motors.
8. Sparking in electric wires and equipment.
PROTECTION AND PREVENTION
Fire protection is better than fire combating. Following are the
safety measures against fire and explosion hazards
1) Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing area
2) Oxygen present in a flammable atmosphere may be reduced by
dilution with gases as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, steam or
combination of these inerts in exhaust gases from fuels, automobile
engines and jet engines.
3) Operating outside the range of flammability.
4) Eliminating the ignition sources:
i. Flames such as burner flames, matches& cigarette lighters &
ii. Hot surface such as heated wires, rods or fragments
Installation of combustible gas indicators.
Adequate ventilation facility.
Fire alarms & fire fighting equipment or fire
extinguishers to be installed in factory at suitable
Provide automatic sprinkles with adequate &
reliable water supply.
Proper storage of combustible materials & removal
of waste materials.
Mechanical hazards are those associated with
power driven machine weather automated or
manually operated machines driven by hydraulic or
The types of injuries results are
cutting , tearing , shearing , crushing , breaking
, straining or puncturing .
PREVENTION OF MACHANICAL
IT can be reduced by the application of appropriate safeguards
Safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of machine-
TYPES OF SAFEGUARDING
1. Point of operation guards
2. Feeding/ ejection method
Point of operation guards
Point of operation guards are three types
1. fixed guards
2. Interlocked guards
• Fixed Guards
it provide a permanent barrier between workers
and point of operation
They shut down the machine when the guard is
not securely in place
Allow safe access for removing jams or for
They provide a barrier against a variety of
FEEDING AND EJECTION SYSTEMS
Automatic feed systems feed the stocks to the
machine from rolls. It eliminate the need of
operators to enter the danger zone
Advantages of this is the operators do not reach in
to the danger zone to retrieve work pieces
LOCKOUT/ TAGOUT SYSTEMS
It is a method that was especially designed to protect
against unexpected startup of a machine
In the lockout system a padlock is placed through a
The lock usually has the label that gives the name
,department and telephone extension of a person.
The lock is removed only by the person
In tagout system the tags should be used
Locked out by ABC
This tag may be
removed by xyz
All the operator should be trained in the safe
operation and maintenance of their machine.
All machine operators should be trained in the
emergency procedures to take when accident occur.
All employee should know how to activate
emergency shut down controls.
Inspection, maintenance, adjustment, repair and
calibration of safe guards should be carried out
Supervisors should ensure the safe guards and
properly in place when machine are in use.
Short-cuts that violate safety principle and practice
should be avoided.
Machine operating without the safety
Maintenance worker cleaning a
machine that is operating.
A robot is operating without a
Stop machine immediately &
activate the safety guard.
Stop machine immediately & lock or
tag it out.
Stop the robot & correct the barrier.
Visitor is wearing a necktie &
observes a lathe machine.
An operator is observed disabling a
Immediately pull the visitor back &
have him remove the tie.
Stop the operator, secure the guard &
take disciplinary action.
A shock is caused by electrical current passing
through human body. The quantity and path of this
current determines the level of damage.
The electrical hazards occurs when a person makes
contact with a conductor carrying a current and
simultaneously contacts the ground.
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL
The major causes of electrical shock are:
• Contact with a base wire carrying current.
• Working with electrical equipment that lacks the label
for safety inspection.
• Electrical equipment that has not been property
• Working with electrical equipment on damp floors.
Using metal ladders to work on electrical
Working on electrical equipment without ensuring
that the power has been shut off.
One common mistake is to jump the ground wire to
the neutral wire.
If the neutral circuit becomes corroded or loose, the
voltage on the ground wire increases to a dangerous
The degradation of insulation can cause a base wire
and resulting shock to anyone coming in contact
It is caused by environments toxic .these are
Repeated exposure to elevated temperature
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL
Ensure that power has been disconnected from the
system before working with it. Capacitors can store
current after power has been shut off.
Allow only fully authorized and trained people to
Do not wear conductive materials such as metal
Periodically inspect insulation.
If working on a hot circuit, use the buddy system
and wear protective clothing.
Do not use a fuse with a greater capacity than was
Verify circuit voltage before performing work.
Do not use water to put on electrical fire.
Discharge capacitors before working on the
Use fuses and circuit breakers for protection
against excessive current.