HOT AND HUMID
• FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE
• TROPICAL CLIMATE
• CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE
• AREAS INFLUENCED BY HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE
• TEMPERATURE VARIATION THROUGHOUT INDIA
• ELUCIDATION OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE IN
SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE COUNTRY
• THERMAL COMFORT
• BIOCLIMATIC CHART
• APPLICATION OF CLIMATOLOGY AND CLIMATIC
DESIGN PROCESS IN ARCHITECTURE
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE???
• AIR TEMPERATURE
• WIND (VELOCITY & DIRECTION)
• PRECIPITATION (AS RAIN,FROST HAIL,
• SOLAR RADIATION
MAP SHOWING PRINCIPLE CLIMATES OF THE WORLD
HUMID SEMI HUMID
TROPIC OF CANCER
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND
• TEMPERATURE RANGES FROM
MAXIMUM TEMP. 27°C – 32°C
MINIMUM TEMP. 21°C – 27°C
• IN WINTERS,
LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATIONS BOTH ANNUAL AND
DIURNAL RANGES OF TEMPERATURE IS VERY NARROW.
• HUMIDITY REMAINS HIGH AROUND 75% BUT VARIES FROM
55% - 100%.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND
2000 TO 5000 mm OF RAINFALL
TYPICALLY LOW WIND VELOCITIES.
STRONG WIND WITH TORRENTIAL RAINS.
• SOLAR RADIATION
THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH
DURING SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING
AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS CLIMATE
COASTAL PLAINS OF PENINSULAR INDIA
• MUMBAI (MAHARASHTRA)
• VISHAKHAPATNAM (AP)
• THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (KERALA)
• CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU)
• KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL)
• PURI (ORISSA)
• GULF OF KUTCHH
THIS TYPE OF CLIMATE IS ALMOST PERENNIAL AND
DOMINANT IN THESE REGIONS.
TEMP. VARIATIONS THROUGHOUT INDIA
CHENNAI 37.3 27.6 28.2 21
KOLKATA 34.1 26.7 27 14
MUMBAI 31.9 26.3 30.9 20.8
PURI 31.7 27.4 27.2 17.7
TRIVANDRUM 29.4 23.6 30.9 22.5
TRIPURA 36.2 20.5 27.1 7
GOA 30 20 25 15
The climate of Goa is equable and humid throughout the year. It is very pleasant and
temperate from October to May. It is wet only during the monsoon or rainy season,
from June to September.
The monsoon bursts over the territory in the beginning of June and withdraws from
it by early October. The annual rainfall is 350 cm.
Temperature variations through the seasons are mild. May is the warmest month
when the temperature is around 30 deg. Celsius and January the coolest with a
mean daily temperature of 25 deg. Celsius.
Due to the proximity of the sea, the territory is generally humid. Even during the
summer months it is generally above 60 %.
Skies are clear to lightly clouded from November to May. There is a sharp increase in
cloudiness with the advance and onset of the monsoons
MONTH MAX .TEMP. MIN. TEMP. HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION
JANUARY 27 15 61-73 FOG
FEBRUARY 29-30 17 SMOG↑
MARCH 30 – 33 18 – 22 95 SMOG AFFECTS CITY
APRIL 35 24
MAY 37 27 67 - 77
JUNE 32 27 PRE MONSOON
JULY 30 25 MAX. RAINFALL OF
AUGUST 30 25-24 LESSER RAIN
30 25 NON-CONTINUOUS
28 18-12 LOW NO PRECIPITATION
• Comfort has been defined as
the condition of mind which
expresses satisfaction with the
facilitate the analysis of the
climate characteristics of a
given location from the
viewpoint of human
comfort, as they present, on
a psychrometric chart, the
concurrent combination of
temperature and humidity
at any given time.
They can also
specify building design
guidelines to maximize
indoor comfort conditions
when the building’s interior
is not mechanically
CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE
• Since beginning, climate has its effects on man, surroundings
• Weather elements forced man to look for shelters
• A climate responsive architecture takes advantage of the free
energy in the form of heat and light.
• An adaptive thermal comfort design is essential.
REQUIREMENTS IN A HOT AND HUMID
• Minimization of the high day temp.
• Avoidance of direct exposure of facades to solar
• Reduction in the humidity levels
• Continuous air circulation to reduce heat and relief
• To create a temp. difference between the inside and
outside environments to facilitate evaporation and
To define climatic design process according to comfort zone, it could be divided to four main
A. Study of the design subject (climate-activities-clothing-etc.)
Designer should be able to fully understand the climate and comfort needs as well as all
architectural issues related to the project.
B. Defining the comfort zone (monthly-daily)
The monthly or daily comfort zone should be defined
C.Gathering the climatic design advices (shading-thermal mass-evaporative cooling-thermal
Clear design advices could be derived from previous studies to give directions for each
issue in building such as site design, form, ventilation, solar gains, window sizing, thermal mass,
passive heating and cooling, materials
D. Designing the project (a climatic building)
Architect is able to form a climatic building.
CLIMATIC DESIGN PROCEDURE
•Larger windows for
INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURE
•Semi – open spaces
for light and air
•Orientation of smaller
side of structure along
for max. air movement
•High density of façade
that is open and yet
•Faint/pale colours on
•Building materials with
properties that resist heat
Voids in roof and
courtyards provide max. light
and cross ventilation
Houses are tall with large
openings to catch breeze
Light colors and reflective
surfaces on roofs will deflect
solar radiations and keep the
Light materials such as
timber are used in
Sloping roof is a
characteristic of these
regions as it drains off rain
water. Barrel-vaulted roof
can also be seen.
Dense growth of
plantations in the outdoors
KERALA: ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE
• In most parts of the State flow of wind is
mainly governed by differential heating of
land and water mass together with
• Winds have westerly component during
the day and easterly components during
the night throughout the year.
• In general, winds are quite strong during
daytime when thermal circulation is best
developed and weak during night.
• Relative humidity ranges from 53% to
72% during the hot weather season.
• It is about 85% or above during the
AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL:
• Receives an average annual rainfall of