Need for Study
Aims and Objectives
Status of women around the world and India
The Changing Trend
Pressing Issues concerning women
Importance of safety and mobility for an urban woman
Gender Inclusion Approach Process
Women-friendly cities Project; Seoul Metropolitan Area
Urban Design Guideline proposed by UrbSpace and European
Regional Development Fund
Jagori – Safe Delhi Campaign
Inferences on Shared Responsibilities
Living environments reﬂect our culture, values, lifestyle and relationships and define the relation
between us and various urban functions.
They belong to the women and men who live in them and play an increasingly important part in
organizing and providing services to them especially in the context of urbanization.
After their long association with only domestic activities, women have gradually moved into the
The urban setting must adapt to this cultural and social change, and cities must
now deal with the changing status of women.
Little say in the planning
of municipal services,
installations and design
“Experts in day-to-day living”
Poorly served as citizens
services, rigid operating
hours of municipal
The lack of access to services and
resources also creates an obstacle to
equal sharing in household and family
Need for Study
It is stated by many planners and sociologists that women experience city life differently from men.
Unlike other built environment occupations, the planning profession has traditionally been ‗gender
The general idea that, ―Whatever is good for men is automatically good for women‖ is
inappropriate as gender neutrality is misleading.
It overlooks speciﬁc needs of men and women and prevents from detecting and rectifying existing
Gender-sensitive urban planning is needed.
Urban planning covers a wide spectrum of concerns including employment, housing, open space,
transport and environment etc.
Gender concerns all aspects of Planning
Case of better employment opportunities for women in the urban areas than rural. But, the
Urban labor market is biased on gender lines. Thus, the pro-urban planning policies provide
scope for improvement of the same.
Source: Statistics on Women of India, 2007:
National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development
Source: Addressing Gender Concern in India‘s Urban Renewal Mission, a paper published by UNDP.
Gender inequality holds back the growth of individuals, the development of nations and the
evolution of societies.
Gender issues are not women‘s issues but understanding opportunities,
constraints and the impact of change as they affect both men and women.
To emphasise on the major issues of safety, security and mobility of women and
delineate the scope for equitable participation in urban life through gender
Aims and Objectives
To highlight the issues concerning urban planning due to gender exclusion.
•To interpret and conceive the concept of inclusive planning with
respect to gender.
•To Highlight the pressing women issues and the gender based
needs and requirements in context to the changing trends
•To understand the transformation of women‘s role and their
changing contributions to the society
•To study gender inclusivity policies at various locations and the
process followed by which various institutions as they address the
issues of safety and mobility.
•To draw conclusions with respect to the responsibilities to be
carried out by various stakeholders and beneficiaries
Affordable housing- Income
A gender- and socially-inclusive city promotes equitable rights and provides
opportunities and support for all residents to participate in urban life.
THE IRONY OF "INCLUSIONARY ZONING ROBERT C. ELLICKSON
World Urban Campaign: An Inclusive City - http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=691
Social integration also requires policies to be inclusive and promotes attending to the needs of all.
Social, political and economic inclusion is increasingly being recognized as the key strategies
against social exclusion.
Between 1973 and 1980, the average sale price of a single-family house in Los Angeles rose from $40,700 to
$115,000, or by 183%.
Inclusionary zoning (IZ) is a set of controls and incentives designed to encourage the production of
Provision of affordable
homes for poor
Women across the world Account for
60% of the
Comprise only 30% of the
official labour force
Receive only 10% of
the world‘s economy
Human Development Report, 2003
Women in India- How free? How equal? – Kalyani Menon Sen, A.K. Shiva Kumar
Own less than 1% of
the world‘s real estate
Little access to productive resources and negligible control over the family income
The gender bias and discrimination is a part of the global scenario
60 % of the 130 million children in the age group of 6-11 years
who do not go to school are girls. 67% of the world‘s 875 million
illiterate adults are women
70% of the 1.2 billion people
living in poverty
940 females per 1000 males in 2011 Female literacy: 47.8% Non-agricultural wage
employment is only 17%
13.9% in the urban sector and
29.9% in the rural sector
Status of Women in India
Occupy only 9% of
Less than 3% women
managers and admin.
Women in India: A historical overview
Sreenivas Murthy, H. V. The position of women in Ancient India.
Vedic Age – Women enjoyed an equal status . The position of women gradually weakened.
Post-Vedic: Seclusion of women for reasons of security and respectability. Women had no
property rights and were reduced to landless labourers. Female infanticide, and other practices
which became commonplace during Mughal period, persisted later on.
The Colonial period had the effect of generating self awareness, and made the presence of
women felt in the freedom struggle.
Thousands of women came forward and participated in the freedom struggle at the call of
Mahatma Gandhi who spurred the movement for women emancipation.
Twentieth century saw the emergence of Mahila Samitis and other organisations for the
upliftment of women. They educated the society about the ill effects of the purdah system, child
marriage, and ill-treatment of widows.
They campaigned for equal rights for women in franchise and education.
As a consequence of their efforts, and women‘s indirect participation in the world war, the ―
The Indian Reforms Act of 1921 enfranchised a small section of the Indian Population for the first
time and women were also included. ― (Devi 1982).
The Constitution of India - Provisions Relating to Women
Grants equality to women
Empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women for
removing the cumulative socio-economic, educational and political disadvantages faced by
them over the ages.
Advancement of Women through Five Year Plans
First Five Year Plan (1951-56)
Second Five Year (1956-61)
Third, Fourth, Fifth Year Plans (1961-74)
Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)
Welfare oriented concerning women‘s issues.
The programmes for women were implemented through the National Extension Service
Programmes through Community Development Blocks.
Efforts were geared to organise ―Mahila Mandals‖ (women‘s Plan groups) at grass-roots levels
to ensure better implementation of welfare schemes.
High priority to women‘s education. Measures to and other Interim improve maternal and
child health services, and supplementary
Source: Statistics on Women in India 2007
India, Planning Commission. (2007). Five Year Plans. New Delhi.
The Plan adopted a multidisciplinary approach with a three-pronged thrust
on health, education and employment of women.
Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)
Eighth Five Year (1992-97)
Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)
Tenth Five Year (2002-2007)
Eleventh Five Year (2007-2012)
Source: Statistics on Women in India 2007; India, Planning Commission. (2007). Five Year Plans. New Delhi.
Development programmes with objective of raising economic and social status and bring
them into the mainstream of national development. Promotion of ―beneficiary-oriented
programmes‖ which extended direct benefits to women.
Enabled to function as equal partners and participants in the developmental process with
reservation in the membership of local bodies.
Marks a definite shift from ‗development‘ to empowerment‘ of women.
Envisaged: a) Empowerment of women and socially disadvantaged as agents of socio-
economic change and development. b) Promoting and developing people‘s participatory
institutions like Panchayati Raj institutions, cooperatives and self-help groups. c) Strengthening
efforts to build self-reliance. d) A women‘s component plan at the Central and State levels.
Ensure requisite access of women to information, resources and services, and advance
gender equality goals.
Special measures for gender empowerment and equity. The Ministry of
Women and Child Development would make synergistic use of gender
budget and gender mainstreaming process.
The number of educated Indian women pursuing professional careers still very small .
62% of women in the country who are illiterate and the low 42% female participation in the
workforce. Only 18% of women are part of the organized labor sector, and only 20% of these are
employed in urban areas.
Women workers in the new IT-related occupations are only 0.3% of urban women workers.
Despite their small numbers in the overall picture, the Indian women professionals of today are
seen as the trend-setters of the future.
The changing trend
Out of the 134 countries surveyed in
the World Economic Forum’s Global
Gender Gap Report 2009,
India ranks 114th on the overall index,
134th on female health and survival,
124th on educational attainment,
and 127th on economic participation
and opportunity — although,
paradoxically, it ranks 24th on
political empowerment.Source: Delloite: Women in India
As the opportunities in cities improve, it is observed that more women are migrating to the
urban areas in search of work and a better quality of life.
It is observed that women tend to choose the cities depending on the idea of how safe is the
city for its women. Therefore, a intangible safety index that determines the movement of
women in search of opportunities.
The urban areas cannot afford to be tagged as unsafe as it negative implications on
development of the economy and the social structure.
Worsening economy forcing women to move to the cities for work and live in dangerous
Urban security because women in cities are increasingly vulnerable to gender-based violence
Women and Poverty
Education and Training of Women
The attitudes towards women in the society
Non-flexible working hours and discriminatory working condition
Sexual harassment and a safety-oriented workplace design.
Fear of Transit
Sources: Zonta International, Safe Cities for Women Project in Guatemala City and San Salvador
Making Space for Women in Cities by Councillor Ellen Woodsworth, canada
Gender Inclusive Planning
Gender-sensitive urban governance
Access to municipal services
Women‘s rights to land and property
Livelihoods and employment
Safety and security
Policies and legal or regulatory reforms
World Urban Campaign: An Inclusive City http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=691
Planning pertaining to the various aspects of
Safety of Women
Insecurity and the threat of violence prevent
women from participating as full and equal citizens
in community life. Women have a ―right to the city.‖
When this right is not realized, women and girls face
significant obstacles to educational, economic,
and political opportunities.
The Growth of many cities, particularly in
developing societies, has been unplanned and
Increasing population size has led to problems in
provision of adequate housing, transport, sanitation
and provision of basic services to all citizens.
Gender issues in planning are central to success in economic regeneration and
Land‐use planning provides the spatial setting for government policy, shaping the way our
towns and cities are designed. However, planning policy tends to ignore the fact that women
and men use public space very differently and have different concerns about how it meets
Consider things in a gender way, that means:
• Make gender differentiated statistics,
analysing utilization of sites or locations
•Assessment for the using of areas and sites
•Rules of decisions
•Rules of participation
•Responsibilities in planning process
•Benefit from a urban design with regards to gender
A city safety for women is safe for all other weak categories: elder, children, disables
MAKE THE CITY A PLACE FOR EVERYONE
Three levels of gender integration:
a. Gender blindness – gender is not considered,
b. Gender neutrality – gender is considered and
equal opportunities are secured,
c. Gender planning – gender is considered and
equity impacts are secured.
Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt. 2009 1
The existing policies in Korea had little consideration of a woman‘s perspective and
experiences pertaining to roads, transportation, and cultural aspects.
Led to inception of Women-friendly City Project
Aim to improve the city spaces by reflecting women‘s perspectives in all city
policies thereby improving their day to day urban life.
- Resolving the factors that cause inconvenience, discomfort and uneasiness in their daily lives.
- Enhancing women‘s rights and helping women achieve their potential.
Women Friedly Seoul Project Report
Expanding the scope of
Women related policies
Improving the laws
and the institution
Addressing the inequality
in their daily lives
Redesigning a City from a Women’s perspective
Participation of all
Divisions in project
Women- friendly city project system
Economy Welfare Culture Environment Citizens
Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt. 2009
Women Friedly Seoul Project Report
Practices for Gender Mainstreaming ( By local Govt) Understanding the views of women and men equally
Women and Family
Ways to help career-interrupted women regain
employment. Provision of affordable yet high quality
Green Seoul Bureau Building parks with women-friendly amenities. How to
create parks that are safe for a woman to walk by herself ?
City Transportation Are there parking lots where women can safely and easily
park their cars? Are there measures to help women use
public transit and para transit services safely at night ?
Are subway facilities stroller friendly ?
Reliability and safety ?
Protection Create Crime – free living spaces and environs.
Process involved participation of female citizens from policy making to
implementation. 244 experts and professors were consulted during policy
making. 200 women (workers and housewives) were involved in on-site
monitoring. Policy consultations and on-site monitoring by 3250 people in
25 autonomous districts.
Women Friendly Cities, Seoul Metropolitan Govt.
Women Friedly Seoul Project Report
90 Sub- Projects
came up in 5 areas.
Safe Seoul Caring
Women-Friendly Parking Lots
56,000 parking lots that give first priority to female drivers
(7.9% of around 7,00,000 slots in 13,00 parking lots. And
installation of CCTVs and emergency bells in underground
parking lots along with improving lighting.
Improving quality of roads, Installing more CCTVs and
increasing lighting to 30 lux, Creating rest spots separate
Well lit pedestrian roads, toilets and parking lots
Women-Friendly Built Environment
CPTED adopted in housing and redevelopment projects
Crime prevention systems, such as windowed (transparent) elevators, in
consideration for safety. Building childcare facilities along with female
bathroom facilities. Subway ticket gates modified for stroller use.
Urban Design Guidelines for Safer Open Spaces
1. Lighting in Public Spaces
2. Isolated Bus stops
3. Dark Roads and Unlit streets
4. Parks and Green areas
5. Car Parks
6. Debris Dumps, Partially
Demolished Buildings and dark alleys.
7. Usable Public Toilets.
8. Male dominated spaces.
9. Security guards and police patrolling
10. Market areas
Undertook a study on women‘s safety, and initiated the ‗Safe Delhi Campaign‘ that focused
on strategies to create safer environments for women, and explored ways to get different
groups of people in the city involved.
Safety audits were conducted across different spots in the city which were then used to identify factors that
cause fear as well as a feeling of safety among women. These findings were then to be used for advocacy
and encourage states to include real life inputs and experiences from women in the urban planning process.
Jagori, Delhi based NGO – “Safe Delhi Campaign” 2
Problems and Perceptions
- Most women felt unsafe going into public spaces
alone or after dark unless they were in groups or
accompanied by men. Women felt safer in well-lit
- Public transport, especially buses, are seen as
unsafe and are cited by the majority of women as
the commonest site for harassment.
- Women felt safer in crowded places than in
isolated places. Bus stops are seen as safer since
they are seldom deserted.
- Male dominated spaces such as cigarette and
paan shops, street corners are felt to be unsafe
and are avoided by women, especially after dark.
- Women prefer using subways which have
vendors and shops.
- Women normally feel safe in using parks in early
evenings or around dusk, but not after nightfall.
Parks become almost exclusively male spaces
“Safe Delhi Campaign” – Safety Audit Maps 2
Group of women
than 1 resident
use of space
the users of
Audit Notes &
“Safe Delhi Campaign” – Safety Audit Maps 2
Kalyanpuri and Mayur Vihar area
The concept of Women's Safety Audits was developed in Toronto, Canada by the Metro Action
Committee on Public Violence Against Women and Children (METRAC), and experimented
UN-HABITAT adapted and experimented this tool within the Safer Cities Programme.
A Women's Safety Audit is the best available
tool for collecting information on public
perceptions of the urban safety in relation to
the urban design.
Without proper knowledge of these public
perceptions and experiences, social and
physical planners can not theorize why crime
happens, politicians can not formulate,
prioritize and implement strategic policies
and professionals can not combat (fear of)
crime itself. It helps to create a more
comfortable environment for women,
children, elderly, and people with disabilities -
for everyone. (METRAC, 1998)
Characteristics of space that are “Safe”
Characteristics of space that induce fear
Transportation systems are the key to urban life, enabling women to access healthcare,
education, and employment opportunities.
For too long, women have been ignored in urban transport planning and design.
Research suggests that women are more likely to:
Walk or use less expensive transportation means
Use off-peak and peripheral public transport routes and
Feel unsafe and be at risk of violence while using urban public transport
Mobility and Transit
Source: (GTZ, 2007)
Examples of areas for policy reform identified in a recent ADB seminar (John, 2011)
Gender Inclusive urban transport include the need to:
-Examine the gendered impact of urban transport planning – for example, a focus on
improving major transport corridors into a city centre is more likely to favour men, whereas
women benefit more from transport improvements within peripheral areas;
-Design urban transport infrastructure that reflects women‘s needs, including safety
-Integrate formal and informal public transport
- Develop strategies to encourage more women into the urban transport workforce
Mobility and Transit
FEAR OF TRANSIT:
Making Space for Women in Cities by Councillor Ellen Woodsworth, Canada
Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 3, No. 4, May 2012
The design of transport systems is a
fundamental aspect of urban and
regional planning. Good public
transport systems can widen
women‘s employment opportunities.
Women are more likely to be
dependent on public transport,
particularly in low income
Important to consider women/ family movements during the day
The idea that a woman‘s place is in the house has been responsible for
phrases or queries like ―What is a nice girl like you doing in a place like this?‖
This reflects greatly the prevailing attitude towards women in a public
The no of employed women has increased and so has their participation in
active public life yet, spatial stereotypes and patterns of behaviour remain.
TO WOMEN'S GROUPS, GRASSROOTS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
TO CITIES AND MUNICIPALITIES
Speak out on
issues of violence
Support in the efforts to
attain gender equality in
Support women in positions of
power to remain
accountable and promote
Listen, accompany, and
support women in their
drive for autonomy and
Mobilize men and boys to
challenge traditional gender roles
in order to prevent violence
against women and girls.
Work in partnership with
all the relevant
Special efforts should
be given to outreach
Create local to local
Act for a local safety policy,
planning, and practices
which integrate a gender
approach, and which
support women's safety
funds to gender
TO POLICE SERVICES
Preventive rather than
a repressive approach
to violence and
The provision of adequate
training on the causes
and impacts of violence
and insecurity on women
Integrate gender awareness, anti-violence,
and human rights teaching into the
curriculum, and to challenge stereotypes
and attitudes on gender-based violence.
Mobilize children through
empowerment strategies, including
self-defense, aimed at ensuring a
safer city for all
Contribute to community
mobilization, and facilitate
access to services aimed at
ensuring women's safety.
Challenge gender stereotypes
and inequalities through
information and awareness
on women's safety
and the integration
of gender in crime
Provide research assistance
and support to community-
based project implementation
Development of strategies to
promote women's safety and
empowerment. Increase women
power in police force
TO PRIVATE SECTOR
INTERNATIONAL NETWORKS AND UN AGENCIES
Partner with local organizations
and municipalities, and
financially support initiatives
promoting women's safety.
Develop policies and
programs to ensure women's
financial autonomy, including
women's right to own
Allocate necessary resources
for the development of
strategies and initiatives on
women's safety and security
and of technical
national and local-to-local
exchanges and cooperation
for sustainable development
local governments in
their efforts to
Audit the impacts of all decisions on the safety and
security of women employees, clients, and
consumers, by working with unions, women's groups
and community organizations to include these issues
Support the evaluation of
progress made by regular
international or regional
conferences on women's
Gender Inclusivity in planning cannot be achieved only through the participation and efforts of
women but is possible only through the active involvement of all – men, women‘s groups, the
municipalities and the governments, international networks and UN agencies.
Emphasizing on the major issues of safety and security of women result in creation of positive
public spaces which promote and strengthen the level of interactions between people.
Gender Inclusiveness promotes greater participation of all groups and segments of the societies
along with improved ease of access to public spaces.
It is the smaller aspects such as lighting, good transport facilities and urban design techniques
that have a significant role in shaping the society as a whole.
The role of NGO‘s and other organisations involved at the grassroot levels is critical to
understanding the issues that might not be considered at the top level management.
Together for Women‘s safety, Creating Safer Cities for marginalised women and everyone,
Authored by Women in Cities International.
Mapping The Women‘s Movement in India
Urban Design Factors that Influence Women‘s Choice of Route of Movement:
The Case of Nairobi Central Business District , by Brenda Maiba Bhoyyo
A City Tailored to Women, The Role of Municipal Governments in Achieving Gender Equality
ActionAid, 2011, ‗Women and the City: Examining the Gender Impact of Violence and
Urbanisation‘, ActionAid Interntional, London.
ADB, 2001, ‗Country Briefing Paper: Women in Bangladesh‘, ADB, Manila
Beall, J., 1996, ‗Urban Governance: Why Gender Matters‘, Gender in Development
Monograph Series No 1, UNDP, New York.
The Sustainable Urban Reader, Edited by Stephen M Heeler and Timothy Beatley
Gender in Planning and Urban Development by Nqobile Malaza, Alison Todes and Amanda
Williamson of the School of Architecture and Planning, University of the Witwatersrand,
Johannesburg, South Africa, with Cliff Hague, Professor Emeritus, School of the Built
Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, and the Women in Planning (WiP) Network
of the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP).
Actinoid: 2011; Women and the City
"The best thermometer to the progress of a nation is its treatment of its women".
- Swami Vivekananda