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Hot and dry climate

This presentation gives brief details about hot and dry climate of India. A special focus on city Jaisalmer (case study) is also provided.our main motive was to provide climatological factors of hot and dry climate zone in India , also to give architectural features and vernacular construction materials used in hot and dry climatic zone.
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Hot and dry climate

  1. 1. HOT AND DRY CLIMATE CLIMATOLOGY BY :ISHA VARSHNEY MISHIKA BUNNY B.Arch 2 year
  2. 2. HOT AND DRY CLIMATE  Very high daytime temperatures, with very little precipitation and a short and mild winter season characterize this climate. Another important characteristic is a high diurnal temperature variation.  Dry climate is spread along the areas from 20 - 35º North and South of the equator and the continental regions of the mid-latitudes.  Dry climate is further classified into two parts namely dry arid climate and dry semiarid climate.
  3. 3. ZONES IN INDIA
  4. 4. HOT AND DRY STATES  Gulf of Kutchh  Rajasthan  Madhya Pradesh  Southern part of Andhra Pradesh  Gujarat
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICSOFHOTANDDRY CLIMATE  Temperature: Very hot. 40 degree Celsius (104 Fahrenheit) or more.  Humidity: Low 10-50%  Precipitation: Lowest rainfall. Arid- 35cm (14 inches) per year Semiarid- 50cm (20 inches) per year  Sky conditions: Cloudless skies with high solar radiation causing glare.
  6. 6. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES  Urban area completely surrounded by narrow alleys & irregular.  Buildings joined together.  Closely packed units.  Maximum day time summer temperature goes as high as 45 degree centigrade and relative humidity as low up to 20 %. This type of climate is experienced in areas far from sea coasts and do not receive heavy rainfall. Thus, the humidity is very low.
  7. 7. JAISALMER-“THE GOLDEN CITY”  The yellow sand and yellow sandstone used in every architecture of the city gives a yellowish- golden tinge to the city and its surrounding area.
  8. 8. JAISALMER  The desert town of Jaisalmer deals with this by building homes that are against each other, with the inner rooms opening towards small courtyards and the front rooms opening through screened openings towards narrow shaded streets. This pattern minimizes the exposure of building surfaces to the outside.
  9. 9. JAISALMER  All the major streets are oriented in east –west direction at right angles to the direction of dust storms.  The height of the building as compared to the width of streets is large to create shaded cool environment for the pedestrians and other social activities on the streets.
  10. 10. JAISALMER HAVELI’S  The most complex an interesting residential buildings in Jaisalmer are the Haveli’s built by rich merchant or courtiers .  In this 4-5 storied houses , the courtyard is surrounded by rooms or verandah’s on all sides.  There are underground rooms as well sometimes at two levels one below the other.  The uppermost storey comprises terraces and high parapet walls. In some cases the houses are built around two courtyard.
  11. 11. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  Courtyard planning.
  12. 12. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  More sill height should be provided for windows.  The windows should be small so that the circulation of air is proper.  The door height should be less.
  13. 13. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  In desert areas circular walls should be made so that the solar radiation would not come directly on the inside walls & hence reflect back.  Light coloured or shiny external surfaces should be provided because it will reflect a large part of incident solar radiation.
  14. 14. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  Direction of breeze, which is from west at most of the places, enters from opening on west side.  Suitable radiation barriers in the form of canopies, Chhajjas, long verandahs etc. should be provided on the West side of the building.  Sufficient number of ventilators close to the bottom of slab should be provided for hot air to escape the room.
  15. 15. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  Thicker outer walls are preferred as it behaves as an insulating barrier  The surface of walls should be smooth and non-dust catching type.  Walls constructed with hollow blocks / bricks and Cavity Walls can also be provided as they provide very good thermal insulation.
  16. 16. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  Roofs should be built up with good insulating material having slope in windward direction and which reflects the radiation and does not absorb heat.  Terracing should be provided on the flat roof with mud phuska, lime concrete, foamed concrete or burnt clay.  False ceiling can be used to improve thermal performance of building.
  17. 17. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  Large shady trees whose roots do not strain foundation and basement should be planted near external walls to provide shade.  Outdoor sleeping area for summer nights preferably is provided.
  18. 18. THANK YOU!!

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