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Class differences in education

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Class differences in education

  1. 1. Class Differences In educational attainment
  2. 2. By the end of the lesson you will be able to:  Identify class categories.  Illustrate differences in educational attainment between children from different socio-economic classes.  Suggest some reasons for the inequalities.  Explain the difference between internal and external factors
  3. 3. Class categories (pre-2001) Number Typical occupations or jobs Letter 1 top management, surgeons, top doctors, university lecturers, chemists, A 2 teachers, executives, journalists B 3a secretaries, sales executives, officials C1 3b skilled crafts people and hairdressers C2 4 semi-skilled people such as bus drivers and machine operators D 5 unskilled people, labourers and cleaners E
  4. 4. Government definitions of class (2001) SOCIAL CLASS Higher Managerial occupations TYPICAL EMPLOYMENT 1.1 Company directors, Police Inspectors, Bank Managers, Senior Civil Servants, Military Officers 1.2 Doctor, Barrister, Solicitor, Clergy, Librarian, Teacher Lower Managerial 2 Nurses and midwives, Journalists, Actors, Prison Officers, Police and Soldiers (below NCO) Intermediate 3 Clerks, Secretaries, Driving Instructors, Computer Operator Small employers 4 Publicans, Farmers, Play group leader, Window cleaner, Painter and Decorator Lower supervisory and craft 5 Printers, Plumbers, Butchers, Bus Inspectors, TV engineers, Train drivers Semi-routine occupations 6 Shop assistant, Traffic Warden, Cook, Bus drivers, Hairdressers, Postal workers Routine occupations 7 Waiters, road sweepers, Cleaners, Couriers, Building labourers, Refuse collectors Never worked 8 Long term unemployed and non-workers
  5. 5. Explaining class differences
  6. 6. Create a poster that outlines the impact of social class on educational attainment. You should include some reasons for the inequalities too. Make sure everything you write is factual.
  7. 7. o There is a longstanding statistical correlation between social class and educational achievement. o When children start school disadvantaged (lower class/poorer) children are already 9 months behind their peers. o Children of middle class families: o Do better at GCSE o Stay longer in full time education o Take the majority of university places
  8. 8. Reasons for differences Private Education o Smaller classes o Higher standard of education ? o 90% of privately educated children go on to university.
  9. 9. Reasons for differences This does not account for differences within state education.
  10. 10. Internal and External Factors Sociologists have suggested many reasons for the differences in educational attainment. These can be broadly split into two categories (although there is a lot of overlap between the two).
  11. 11. Internal factors are influences within the education system itself. Inequalities between different schools Selection policies - marketisation Interactions between students and teachers Labelling of children the self-fulfilling prophecy Pupil subcultures
  12. 12.  External factors are outside of the education  Influence of: The home The family background Wider society
  13. 13. Alfred Binet
  14. 14. Intelligence Supporters of IQ theory such as psychologists Arthur Jensen and Hans Eysenck make four important claims which together form the basis of IQ theory. 1. Intelligence can be defined precisely and measured accurately via IQ [Intelligence Quotient] tests. 2. There are statistical data which indicate that there is a good correlation between IQ and social class membership . 3. There are further data which indicate that there is a good correlation between IQ and educational achievement as measured by examination results. 4. There are also data derived from studies of identical twins reared together and from other studies where the identical twins are reared apart which suggest, that genetic inheritance explains between 40% and 80% of the differences in intelligence between individuals.
  15. 15. Intelligence IQ theorists claim that working class students are unsuccessful educationally because they are less intelligent and that they are less intelligent mainly because of their inheritance of “less intelligent genes.” It should be noted also that IQ theorists have sometimes used similar arguments to claim that differences in ethnic educational achievements can be explained mainly in terms of ethnic differences in inherited intelligence and that such claims have ignited massive controversy in which these IQ theorists have been accused of, at best, poor science and, at worst racism.
  16. 16. Intelligence It is difficult to define what "Intelligence" actually is. It is open to question whether so called Intelligence Quotient tests can accurately measure Intelligence (it mostly seems to measure how middle class, white and male you are.) Tests may be culturally biased in various ways In class stratified societies and heavily streamed schools the self-confidence of working class students may have been seriously undermined so that they under-perform in IQ tests much as they have often done in the education system.
  17. 17. By the end of the lesson you will be able to:  Identify class categories.  Illustrate differences in educational attainment between children from different socio-economic classes.  Suggest some reasons for the inequalities.  Explain the difference between internal and external factors

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