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Leiden University. The university to discover.
From paper to screen
reading:
!
Implications for literacy and
the book indu...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
on Steve Jobs
- When asked what market research went into
the iPad, Mr. Job...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Slovenian survey
Numbers of
books bought
1998 2014
>20 Books 3% 1%
11–20 Bo...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Slovenian survey (cont’d)
Reasons for
not buying
books
1998 2014
Books are ...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Book sales in the Netherlands (in millions of units)
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Resolving the paradox
- People read differently in term of
- Price: free (g...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Essay competition
organised by the Book
trade association of the
Netherland...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Similarities C19 and C21
- Price, content and channels
- For example:
- C21...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Differences C19 and C21
- Nineteenth century more socially than
technologic...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Who are the ‘new readers’?
- The ‘Online generation’
- [NB: additional!]
- ...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
How are expectations different?
- The ‘Online mentality’
- Instant gratific...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Primary technological properties
- The computer is
1. A ‘Universal machine’...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Salient technological properties
Paper Digital screen
Fixed / stable / perm...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Example mentality shift 1
- News needs to be free
- Citizen journalism; Use...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Example mentality shift 2
- Digital text has less value
- Research by
• R. ...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Example mentality shift 3
- Access is more important than ownership
- Cf. i...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Sociotechnical development
Technological properties
and
affordances
➡
Actio...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
NB
- Intended vs unintended effects
- Technology has no agency, but inheren...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Sociotechnical development
Technological properties
and
affordances
➡
Actio...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Immateriality
- Salient technological property
- Immateriality
- Actions/us...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Two-way networking
- Salient technological property
- Two-way networking
- ...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Sieghart Review Key Conclusions
The interests of publishers and booksellers...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Limited control over technology
- No agency, but inherent characteristics
-...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
Concentration of economic power
!
Ideologies like ‘openness’, ‘sharing’
are...
Leiden University. The university to discover.
‘[T]his book will look at the role of IT
as a driver of [income] inequality...
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Máster edición digital uoc 2014 adriaan van der weel

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Presentación de Adraian Van der Weel dentro del III Seminario Els reptes de l'Edició Digital del Máster en Edición de la UOC.

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Máster edición digital uoc 2014 adriaan van der weel

  1. 1. Leiden University. The university to discover. From paper to screen reading: ! Implications for literacy and the book industry Adriaan van der Weel
  2. 2. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  3. 3. Leiden University. The university to discover. on Steve Jobs - When asked what market research went into the iPad, Mr. Jobs replied: ‘None. It’s not the consumers’ job to know what they want.’ 
 (NYTimes, 6 okt. 2011)
  4. 4. Leiden University. The university to discover. Slovenian survey Numbers of books bought 1998 2014 >20 Books 3% 1% 11–20 Books 7% 4% 4–10 Books 19% 22%
  5. 5. Leiden University. The university to discover. Slovenian survey (cont’d) Reasons for not buying books 1998 2014 Books are not interesting 2% 29%
  6. 6. Leiden University. The university to discover. Book sales in the Netherlands (in millions of units)
  7. 7. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  8. 8. Leiden University. The university to discover. Resolving the paradox - People read differently in term of - Price: free (gratis) online content such as - News, fan fiction, ‘long reads’, classics and public domain texts (and illegal e-books!) - New text forms like texting, blogs, social media, email - Different distribution channels - Outside the paid channels (book trade, newspapers, magazines) - Through ‘marginal’ channels of newcomers • Amazon • E-book ventures of all sorts
  9. 9. Leiden University. The university to discover. Essay competition organised by the Book trade association of the Netherlands in 1845: ‘Is the book trade declining?’
  10. 10. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  11. 11. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  12. 12. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  13. 13. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  14. 14. Leiden University. The university to discover. Similarities C19 and C21 - Price, content and channels - For example: - C21: Amazon - C19: A. Eichler, syndicator over most of Europe, with Nick Carter, Buffalo Bill, and Raffles series - Difficulty in identifying the needs of the new audience - Different mentalities of book trade and customers
  15. 15. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  16. 16. Leiden University. The university to discover. Differences C19 and C21 - Nineteenth century more socially than technologically driven - Extension chiefly at the bottom of the market - Role of education - Hierarchical society: desire for upward mobility - (As well as ‘secret’ interest in the ‘lower’ culture) - Rotary presses: cheaper, larger print runs - Twentieth century more technologically than socially driven - Extension at the bottom of the market + changes in the existing market - Primary driver: digitisation
  17. 17. Leiden University. The university to discover. Who are the ‘new readers’? - The ‘Online generation’ - [NB: additional!] - Online 24/7 • Communication • Media consumption • Products and services - Instantaneousness - Democratic, two-way traffic • Equality of producer and consumer
  18. 18. Leiden University. The university to discover. How are expectations different? - The ‘Online mentality’ - Instant gratification - Content is free (or virtually so) - Access to content is self-filtered: • Setting preferences • Creating profiles • Listening to peers - Access is more important than ownership - ‘If something doesn’t reach me, it’s probably not important to me’ - ‘What can be done online, must be done online’
  19. 19. Leiden University. The university to discover. Primary technological properties - The computer is 1. A ‘Universal machine’ 2. A digital–electronic device
  20. 20. Leiden University. The university to discover. Salient technological properties Paper Digital screen Fixed / stable / permanent Fluid / unstable / impermanent Offline Online (hyperlinking) Material and tangible Immaterial and intangible Text=substrate Substrate takes any text Product (economic scarcity) ‘Service’ (inexhaustible) One-way (author > reader) Two-way networking (Web 2.0) Duo-modal Multimodal Machine readable (searchable) Technological and economic length limitations
  21. 21. Leiden University. The university to discover. Example mentality shift 1 - News needs to be free - Citizen journalism; User-Generated Content - Consumers settle for ‘good enough’ - Enabled by two-way networking in Web 2.0 form
  22. 22. Leiden University. The university to discover. Example mentality shift 2 - Digital text has less value - Research by • R. Ackerman and M. Goldsmith, ‘Metacognitive regulation of text learning’ (2011) • Ziming Liu, ‘Reading behavior in the digital environment’ (2006) • Jacob Nielsen, ‘F-shaped pattern for reading Web content’ (2006) - Price perception: lesser preparedness to pay for texts than for games, films, music? - NB: Role of Open Access - Enabled by non-materiality and fluidity
  23. 23. Leiden University. The university to discover. Example mentality shift 3 - Access is more important than ownership - Cf. ideological ‘movement’ towards not owning cars, tools, clothes - The web is an access technology, it offers services rather than products - Subscription models for e-books - Cf. ‘mass media’ and music - Importance of the device (paid; relatively expensive) vs. content (cheap or even free) - Enabled by non-materiality and service nature
  24. 24. Leiden University. The university to discover. Sociotechnical development Technological properties and affordances ➡ Actions/uses ➡ Social effects
  25. 25. Leiden University. The university to discover. NB - Intended vs unintended effects - Technology has no agency, but inherent characteristics
  26. 26. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  27. 27. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  28. 28. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  29. 29. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  30. 30. Leiden University. The university to discover. Sociotechnical development Technological properties and affordances ➡ Actions/uses ➡ Social effects
  31. 31. Leiden University. The university to discover. Immateriality - Salient technological property - Immateriality - Actions/uses (technological effects) - E.g., favours access rather than ownership models - Social effects - E.g., change in price perception
  32. 32. Leiden University. The university to discover. Two-way networking - Salient technological property - Two-way networking - Actions/uses (technological effects) - E.g., availability of information about customer behaviour - Social effects - E.g., change in (attitude to) privacy
  33. 33. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  34. 34. Leiden University. The university to discover. Sieghart Review Key Conclusions The interests of publishers and booksellers must be protected by building in frictions that set 21st- century versions of the limits to supply which are inherent in the physical loans market (and where possible, opportunities for purchase should be encouraged). These frictions include [1] lending of each digital copy to one reader at a time, that [2] digital books could be securely removed after lending and that [3] digital books would deteriorate after a number of loans. The exact nature of these frictions should evolve over time to accommodate changes in technology and the market.
  35. 35. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  36. 36. Leiden University. The university to discover.
  37. 37. Leiden University. The university to discover. Limited control over technology - No agency, but inherent characteristics - Cf. seeds tended by human gardener (genetic modification)
  38. 38. Leiden University. The university to discover. Concentration of economic power ! Ideologies like ‘openness’, ‘sharing’ are being appropriated by the commercial web ! The ‘long tail’ is a myth
  39. 39. Leiden University. The university to discover. ‘[T]his book will look at the role of IT as a driver of [income] inequality’ (p. 3)

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