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user generated content online and political processes: conceptual problems of policy, media and legal regulation



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user generated content online and political processes: conceptual problems of policy, media and legal regulation

  1. 1. u ser generated content online and political processes : conceptual problems of policy, media and legal regulation Liutauras Ulevičius MRU, 2009
  2. 3. conceptual challenges <ul><li>how should virtual communication be optimally employed as democracy and political discourse catalyst? </li></ul><ul><li>user generated vs. illegal content – creating procedures of evaluation, authentification and liability? </li></ul><ul><li>content creators and media status – when should users be deemed as media-like subjects? </li></ul>
  3. 4. definitions
  4. 5. user generated content (UGC) <ul><li>defining UGC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no definition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>specifying UGC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user interaction as a response or as creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>categorizing UGC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>... impossible? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... ever evol v ing? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. user generated content (UGC) <ul><li>interaction and feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>social networks (utilization of uniting factor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general (facebook, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empowering frameworks (photo, geneology, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>user-driven discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blogs (media-like function) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forums, email lists </li></ul></ul>initiative civil society!
  6. 7. information & political processes <ul><li>legal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reklamos įstatymas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politinių partijų ir politinių kampanijų finansavimo įstatymas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuomenės informavimo įstatymas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepilnamečių apsaugos nuo neigiamo viešosios informacijos poveikio įstatymas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. information & political processes <ul><li>political campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barack Obama fund-raising and support consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>public discourse (opinions, ...) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> vs. Ingrida Šimonytė </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. policy
  9. 11. defining UGC <ul><li>“ political call for action”  negative UGC on political activities in </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Provision of Information to the Public, 2006+ editions </li></ul><ul><li>information society media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information society service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(no) usually paid </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Lithuanian case law <ul><li>Media Ethics Inspector, 2007 Nr. SPR-9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>situation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>content – instructions how to make explosives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>legal evaluation – public information, negative effect to minors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blog-farm owner / author(s) to be liable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>notice-and-take-down procedure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. adaptation ad hoc ? <ul><li>sub-conclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no support for criticism ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ traditional” means to prosecute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no framework to support freedom of expression </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. media
  13. 16. media subjects <ul><li>publishers </li></ul><ul><li>editors </li></ul><ul><li>j ournalists </li></ul><ul><li>public authorities (ethics, self-government, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>... internet users ??? </li></ul>
  14. 17. Council of Europe <ul><li>C ommittee of Experts on New Media, 2009.09.28-30, Strasbourg: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elaborating a policy document reviewing the concept of media itself to include relevant new media and media-like mass communication services and service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application to the new services or service providers of Council of Europe standards that were developed for traditional forms of mass communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory activities required to ensure respect for Council of Europe values in the framework of new media and media-like mass communication services </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Lithuanian case law <ul><li>Lietuvos vyriausiasis administracinis teismas, administrative case Nr. A 444 -70/2009, 2009.04.20: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are bloggers entitled to the same legal protection as journalists? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><...> pakanka nustatyti, ar fizinis asmuo profesionaliai renka, rengia ir teikia medžiagą, kurią pats panaudoja veikdamas kaip viešosios informacijos rengėjas </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Lithuanian case law online user citizen journalist professional way to collect, analyse and disseminate information
  17. 20. media changes, users empowered? <ul><li>sub-conclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every online user is partially a journalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>factor of professionalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media rights for online users are still to fight for ... although first cases are encouraging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media not willing to share the rights and privileges </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. legal regulation
  19. 22. problem Nr.1 <ul><li>lack of u nified approach </li></ul><ul><li>legal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law on the Provision of Information to the Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concept of Information society service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CoE, EU-wide ??? </li></ul>
  20. 23. problem Nr. 2 <ul><li>obligations = rights (prof. A.Vaišvila) </li></ul><ul><li>if ... then ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>media-like are liable! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media-like should be equal to media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>formal approval needed </li></ul>
  21. 24. problem Nr. 3 <ul><li>pluralism and protection of different opinions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECJ cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>racial, etc. hatred, discrimination – real cases and real problems </li></ul><ul><li>limits between freedom of expression vs. interest of others </li></ul>
  22. 25. conclusions
  23. 26. conclusions
  24. 27. Thank you! Questions? Liutauras Ulevičius, MRU, 2009 – www.ulevič Presentation artwork from: , , , , , Time Inc.

Editor's Notes

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