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UiTM IM110 IMD253 : ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION (IMD253) Individual Assignment

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FINAL PROJECT INDIVIDUAL:
ANALYZE AND REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Z39.50: An information Retrieval Protocol
• Introduction
• History And Backround
• Objective & Purpose
• Function
• Benefit
• Conclusion


MARC Standard
• Introduction
• History And Backround
• Objective & Purpose
• Function
• Benefit
• Conclusion

Published in: Leadership & Management
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UiTM IM110 IMD253 : ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION (IMD253) Individual Assignment

  1. 1. FACULTY OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DIPLOMA OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IM110) ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION (IMD253) FINAL PROJECT INDIVIDUAL: ANALYZE AND REPORT Prepared By: MUHAMMAD NOORAMIN BIN MOHD HASSAN (2010xxxxxx) PREPARED FOR HASLINDA HUSAINI 17 February 2013
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Z39.50: An information Retrieval Protocol · Introduction · History And Backround · Objective & Purpose · Function · Benefit · Conclusion MARC Standard · Introduction · History And Backround · Objective & Purpose · Function · Benefit · Conclusion 2 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  3. 3. Z39.50: An information Retrieval Protocol INTRODUCTION Z39.50 is an international standard for communication between computer systems primarily, library and information related systems. Z39.50 is becoming increasingly important to the future development and deployment of inter-linked library systems. HISTORY AND BACKROUND The Z39.50 standard was originally proposed in 1984 to provide a standard way of interrogating bibliographic databases. Since then, it has gone through 3 versions - in 1988 (v1),1992(v2) and 1995(v3). Version 2 in 1992 also incorporated and became compatible with an ISO standard (10162/3) called Search and Retrieve. Version 3 in 1995 extended the features of the protocol - it is this version that most suppliers are now implementing. It is maintained by the Z39.50 Maintenance Agency - administered by the Library of Congress OBJECTIVE & PURPOSE The typical (simplified) search process involved in a Z39.50 session is as follows: · OPAC user selects Target library (Z-server) from an OPAC menu. · OPAC user enters search terms · OPAC software sends search terms and Target library details to a “Z-client” a piece of software usually running as part of the library system. · Z-client translates the search terms into “Z-speak” and contacts the Target library’s Z-server software. · There is a preliminary negotiation between the Z-client and Z-server to establish the rules for the “Z-Association” between the two systems. · Z-server translates the “Z-speak” into a search request for the Target library’s database and receives a response about numbers of matches etc. · Z-client receives records · Records are presented to the OPAC interface for the user. 3 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  4. 4. FUNCTION Search features The latest version of Z39.50 (V.3 1995), allows extremely powerful search statements to be defined including: · Complex Boolean statements involving all the standard operators AND, OR, NOT · Comparison operators for dates e.g. Greater than, equal to etc. · Proximity searching · Truncation · Completeness i.e. part of field, complete field etc. As well as searching, Z39.50 enables · Authentication allowing the Z-server to control who accesses their databases. · Accounting/resource control to allow access to be charged for. · “Explain” facility to allow information about the remote database services available etc. to be transmitted to the Z-client. · Index browsing as typically available in OPAC systems. · Defining record formats e.g. MARC format BENEFIT As is often the case, the basic technology is simple, but the ramifications are complex and far-reaching. Three key points have turned a process designed for simplifying a searcher’s life into a powerful force for changing all aspects of library activity. · Modern Z-clients can send requests to several libraries simultaneously either the same request or different ones. This feature allows tremendous time saving when searching for rare items or for large numbers of records. · The basic record format used for interchange is MARC. The Z-client is presented with a MARC record for display and possible further processing. All 4 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  5. 5. libraries “trade” in bibliographic records one way or another. Z39.50 opens up that trade by making standardising the basic search and retrieve functions. · Extended services for ordering documents, updating databases and storing searches can be defined and controlled via Z39.50. By using Z39.50 as a basis, many other library processes, particularly ILL, can become “open”. CONCLUSION Being an international standard for communication between computer systems, Z39.50 enforces unification among databases which is compatible for future uses and still valid today. It overcome a problem associated with multiple database searching to simplifies search process by making it possible for searchers to use familiar user interface of the local system to search both local library catalog and any remote database system that support the standard. 5 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  6. 6. MARC Standard INTRODUCTION MARC is an acronym for MAchine Readable Cataloging. This is a computerized method of recording the information needed in a cataloging record: the descriptive cataloging, subject headings and other access points, and classification numbers and other call number information. Creating these computer readable cataloging records means that computer programs can be designed to search for and display specified pieces of the information stored in a cataloging record. HISTORY AND BACKROUND The Library of Congress developed MARC in the 1960’s. Their intent was to create a computer-readable format that could be used for bibliographic records, enabling libraries to download cataloging, share information, and search all parts of a cataloging record. Libraries had shared cataloging before MARC was developed, through union catalogs, usually in book or microfilm form. These union catalogs were made up of copies of the card catalog record for each item in the library. Union catalogs were not realistic for most libraries to own because they were expensive to create, difficult to update, and often cumbersome to use. As more was learned about the possibilities that computers offered, the Library of Congress decided that computers were very compatible with cataloging. Their goal was to create a program that could encode all of the information needed in a cataloging record, and make that information available to any user. Originally the Library of Congress program was called LC MARC. Changes and adjustments have been made to the original MARC format to reflect changes in newer editions of AACR2, and to reflect current practices and needs in libraries. In North America during the 1980’s and 1990’s, two slightly different standards were being used, USMARC and CAN/MARC. These two formats have been blended together since 1999, into the current format, sometimes referred to as MARC 21. 6 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  7. 7. The current database of MARC records that is maintained by the Library of Congress, and added to by libraries all over the country, has become a union catalog of much greater proportions than was probably envisioned when this project began. OBJECTIVE & PURPOSE The information from a catalog card cannot simply be typed into a computer to produce an automated catalog. The computer needs a means of interpreting the information found on a cataloging record. The MARC record contains a guide to its data, or little "signposts," before each piece of bibliographic information. The place provided for each of these pieces of bibliographic information (author, title, call number, etc.) is called a "field." The records in simpler computer files sometimes have a fixed number of fields, and each field contains a fixed number of characters. However, to allow proper cataloging of books and other library items, the best file structure allows for records with an unlimited number of fields and unlimited field lengths. This flexibility is necessary because not all titles are the same length (The robe versus Alexander and the terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day). Some books are part of a series, requiring a field for that information, while others have no series statement. And audiovisual items have much longer physical descriptions (5 filmstrips : sd., col. ; 35 mm. + teaching manual) than do most books (403 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.). The computer cannot expect a certain type of information to begin and end at the same position in every bibliographic record. The statement of responsibility will not always begin with the 145th character of the record and end at the 207th position, for example. Therefore each MARC record contains a little "table of contents" to the record, according to a predefined standard. FUNCTION You could devise your own method of organizing the bibliographic information, but you would be isolating your library, limiting its options, and creating much more work for yourself. Using the MARC standard prevents duplication of work and allows libraries to better share bibliographic resources. Choosing to use MARC enables libraries to acquire cataloging data that is predictable and reliable. If a library were to develop a "home- 7 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6
  8. 8. grown" system that did not use MARC records, it would not be taking advantage of an industry-wide standard whose primary purpose is to foster communication of information. BENEFIT Using the MARC standard also enables libraries to make use of commercially available library automation systems to manage library operations. Many systems are available for libraries of all sizes and are designed to work with the MARC format. Systems are maintained and improved by the vendor so that libraries can benefit from the latest advances in computer technology. The MARC standard also allows libraries to replace one system with another with the assurance that their data will still be compatible. CONCLUSION MARC is a metadata transmission standard, not a content standard. It has worked well for the last 50 years and still relevant to the information management activities. Mastering MARC standard is crucial for fellow librarians alike. 8 | M u h a m m a d N o o r a m i n | 2 0 1 0 6 5 7 1 3 6

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