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  1. 1. Photomontage Photomontages combine several photographs into one as to represent an idea, object, view et cetera from different elements. In this advertisement, there is a compilation of several photographs including the acne medication bottle, a close up of the medication, and a dollop of the medication. The close-up makes the medication seem powerful because it is the biggest thing on the page. Putting that next to the actual bottle helps people recognize it when they go to the store.
  2. 2. Photographic Mortise Photographic mortise is done by cutting out a section of the copper used to create an image and filling it with another object. This is more modern because it is done on a computer but the idea is the same: a part of the whole is cut out to include another piece of information. In this case, the small picture models the sheer underwear in another pose, adding to the angles.
  3. 3. Enlarged Halftone I couldn’t find an enlarged halftone in the two magazines I have, but the Mr. Clean advertisement is likely inspired by enlarged halftones with the repetition of white circles (even though halftones are colored). This makes the advertisement have a pop-art sort of feel. The picture of the cat’s eye is real enlarged halftones. It carries connotations of a newspaper advertisement or news photograph.http://www.thetonesystem.com/inkjet_basics2.html
  4. 4. Depth of Field (2) Depth of field refers to the depth in which objects are in focus on the z-axis. In both photographs to the left I focused on the Vaseline lotion bottle. The one on top was shot with F/22 and the one on the bottom was an F/3.5. The greater your f-stop the greater the depth of field. Large depth of field is good for landscapes, for example, when you want to show detail all along the z-axis. Less depth of field is better when there are distractions in your background because it emphasizes your subject (notice how your eye goes straight to the Vaseline bottle in the bottom picture).
  5. 5. Stop-action photograph This is a photograph I took at the Holy Angels vs. Henry Sibley basketball game. A high shutter speed and a high ISO for the low lighting allowed me to capture this photograph with very limited blur. Notice the tilt of number 34’s body, showing that her teetering motion has been frozen in space with the camera. Angled lines are often created with stop- action photography, which leads to the feeling of action about to take place.
  6. 6. Grainy photograph This is a crop of a photograph I took last month. Notice the grain especially showing through on the man’s face and the back wall. This is because I used an ISO 3200 because of the low lighting in the area. The high ISO allows for less light, but unfortunately makes photographs more grainy.
  7. 7. Slow shutter speed This is the picture that the close-up was taken from on the previous slide. The slower shutter speed means that the shutter is open for longer amounts of time, in this case I believe it was 1/30. This creates blur on the photo of any fast moving objects. In this case, the artist’s hand is blurred because it was moving faster than 1/30th of a second. This shows motion and action.
  8. 8. Blur vs. out of focus picture My hand is the defining subject in both of these pictures. The one on top is a photograph with blur. The hand is still in focus, but because of the slow shutter speed and movement of my left hand, a ghostly blurred imprint is left. My hand in photograph on bottom, however, is simply just not in focus. There are no defining lines in it, but the bag of Sumatra coffee beans is in focus. Blur is good if you want to show motion, do light painting, or create ghostly images. Being out of focus is almost never good for the subject of your photograph, but it can be good to have non-subjects out of focus as to create emphasis on your subject.
  9. 9. Panned action photo A panned action photo is when you follow a moving subject with your camera while keeping the shutter speed slightly longer than a stop- action photograph. If done correctly, this will put your subject in focus and create a blur in the background. In this photograph, my fingers are in focus and I followed them with the camera as they moved through space, creating a blurred background. This technique is tricky to do, but can be good to show motion while keeping the subject in focus.
  10. 10. Zoom burst photo A zoom burst photograph is taken with a longer shutter speed and a zoom lens. You focus on your subject, stabilize the camera, take the picture and then either zoom in or out while the shutter is open. This makes an array of light lines that point towards the center of the photograph, which can create emphasis on whatever is in the center. In this case, the word “AVEDA” has the most attention because it was placed in the center and all the lines point to it. The photograph on top zooms in while the one on bottom zooms out.
  11. 11. Wide lens Wide angle lenses stretch the distance between objects. In this picture, the fingers look like they’re located really far away from the man’s head even though they’re at normal arms-length. The lens also increases the relative size of things closer to the lens, which is why his fingers are larger than his head. Parallel lines converge quickly, too, so it looks like his arms would cross behind his head if they continued outward eventhttp://www.shotaddict.com/wordpress/wp- though the imagined line wouldcontent/uploads/2007/04/portet_04.jpg not converge for much longer because his arms are very close to being parallel. There is a strong depth of field so the man and his hands are all relatively in focus.
  12. 12. Telephoto lens Pictures taken with a telephoto lens appear to have a decreased distance between objects, thus emphasizing overlapping planes. Notice how close the third man appears to be in relation to the first two, even though he is likely about five feet behind since he is not assisting the tackle. The relative size of objects in the distance are increased. For example, the ref (?) in white blurred in the left is about half the size of the men in focus,http://www.lightingpictures.net/tag/sports-photographers/ but he is likely very far away. Lines converge slowly and the depth of field is reduced so only the three men are in focus.
  13. 13. Macro lens Macro lenses are short in length but they magnify the subject. They are often used in nature photography. In this photograph, the Tokey’s eye is magnified so that you can see extreme detail that one would not notice, or be capable of noticing, without a special lens. Interest is often created because it is such a unique, up-close view.http://burnthecanvas.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/011.jpg
  14. 14. Shot length/framing: Panoramic http://www.youridahofalls.com/ The panoramic shot is a picture of the environment, like the one above of Idaho Falls area. When placed in film or photo stories it is best utilized to set the scene for part of the movie or story. (Shot sizes between this slide and the next are long shot and medium long shot. A long shot shows a group of people, full body, with some environment and little seen emotion. A medium long shot moves in on those people and you begin to see their emotions.)
  15. 15. Shot length/framing: medium shot The medium shot is of one or a few individuals where the lower body is cropped out. You are able to see emotions in the people’s faces. This shot from Scrubs is a medium shot because you cannot see their lower bodies and you are capable of seeing that JD is mildly content with this kiss while the girl is very relaxed and content. (The shot size between medium shot and close-up is the mediumhttp://www.tvstylebook.com/tables/table-54-scrubs-scene-decoupage/ close-up. This is of a character cropped in at mid-chest. You can see facial features and detail of clothing. It is personal.)
  16. 16. Shot length/framing: close-up The close-up is a tight frame of a person’s face. You are able to see details in the skin such as wrinkles and bumps, and get closer to people than you usually would in real life. It is a very personal shot. This shot from The Shining allows you to get in his face and really feel his delusion because it is so personal.
  17. 17. Shot length/framing: extreme close-up The extreme close-up shows a part of the body or face or object, revealing more detail. This is a screen shot from Kill Bill. In this case, the extreme close- up lets you see the red in her eyes, showing that she is fatigued, as well blood on her face that would normally be a very small detail, but in this case is a large part of the frame. It also adds to the intensity of the scene because youhttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_iSwCsgcQqEM/SwlaTpiWLbI/AAAAAAAAAL8/Mzc1VZEhpsc/s1600/close+up+8.png feel anxiety not being able to see what she is seeing.
  18. 18. Photographic composition rules: Rule of thirds Rule of thirds states that when the photograph is broken up by threes vertically and horizontally, the most important objects should lay along those lines and at the points of intersection. In this case, the man and the cat lay upon the lines and the cats eyes and the mans fingers are on the intersecting points. These are the points that your eye automatically goes to, so emphasis is created on the cat’s gaze and the contact between man and cat.
  19. 19. Photographic composition rules: balance Balance creates a feeling of symmetry in both symmetrical and asymmetrical photographs. In this picture, the woman on the left is balanced by an equally tall mirror and the color of her pants are balanced by the color reflected in the mirror.
  20. 20. Photographic composition rules: framing Framing puts your main subject in a space to put emphasis on it. In this case, there is a rock framing around the woman, so your eye first goes directly to her and from there is led around the picture. You first relate to the girl and then to what she is doing.
  21. 21. Photographic composition rules: leading lines This ad for Target uses the girl’s arms and legs as leading lines. The lines are utilized to direct the eye to the most important thing in the page. In this case, your eye is moved directly to the clothing, which is what Target is trying to sell in this ad.
  22. 22. Ansel Adams Ansel Adams “Old Faithful Geyser” 1950 Adams specialized in American environmental and documentary photography. He broke away from the norm of photography in that he believed it should take its own form instead of mimicking oil paintings and other fine art, as you can see in this photo. Instead of creating, for example, a portrait of a well-dressed lady that closely resembles an oil painting, he chose to make a realistic view of Old Faithful his main subject. He believed a photo can communicate the majesty of nature, which is shown through the towering, powerful properties of Old Faithful and the beautiful array of black, white and gray tones.
  23. 23. Edward Weston Edward Weston “Shell” 1927 Weston created interest in very ordinary objects through creative use of point-of-view. Common ordinary objects he used were nudes, nature studies, Point Lobos, Death Valley, clouds, trees, water, architecture, walls and portraits. In this picture, Weston puts emphasis on the shell through dramatic lighting and then props it on its side so he could shoot an interesting view. He also zoomed in on the shell and got down to it’s level to create a photograph that depicts a view of a shell that many of us don’t see every day.
  24. 24. Paul Strand Paul Strand “Blind” 1916 Strand took pictures of people in their normal environment, which was a great juxtaposition against the usual photography done in the studio. Like the photo on the left, he often took pictures of the city with subjects that were poor or vulnerable. Other subjects included the working class, “typical” people.http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/33.43.334
  25. 25. Imogen Cunningham Imogen Cunningham “After the Bath” 1952 “Agave” 1920’s Cunningham was known for creating anti-Victorian nudes that make the body into a feminine and sensuous art. The pose and lighting in “After the Bath” reflect Cunningham’s sensuality, as well as his modern flare that repels Victorianism. He does this by not including sentimental objects and by really minimizing what’s in the picture. He also included many botanical subjects, as illustrated through “Agave”.
  26. 26. Jacob Rijs Jacob Rijs “Bandits Roost” 1888 Rijs, like Strand, took photographs of people in their environment. He often photographed poor New Yorkers . The ones on the left live in crowded housing with limited space between buildings. The streets and skyline appear unkempt. Rijs was a humanitarian and took these pictures to create a social change in tenements.
  27. 27. Lewis Hine Lewis Hine “Spinner in North Pormal” 1910 Lewis also pushed for social reform. His focus was in photographing people at work, especially children, in order to speak out against child labor.
  28. 28. Dorothea Lange Dorothea Lange “Migrant Mother” 1936 In Lange’s most famed photograph a woman and her two children face the Great Depression with great concern and sadness. Lange is known for documenting the Great Depression and people in poverty. Photographs like these influenced documentary photography and photojournalism.
  29. 29. Russell Lee Russell Lee “Conversation at the General Store, Louisiana” 1938 Lee, like Lange, was a photojournalist hired by the FSA. He documented the common and poor people, including people of varying races like the photograph to the left.
  30. 30. Gordon Parks Gordon Parks “American Gothic” 1942 Gordon was an African American photojournalist/portrait taker also hired by the FSA. He focused on poor black Americans, as shown by making Ella the subject of the portrait on the left and combining her working image with the American flag. This photograph was not allowed to be made public.
  31. 31. John Vachon John Vachon “Worker at Carbon Black Plant” 1942 Vachon is another photographer hired by the FSA to take pictures of the poor. The picture to the left emphasizes poor working conditions as the man is covered in soot.
  32. 32. Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White “Buchenwald” 1945 Bourke-White was a female photographer who is best known for taking pictures of foreign affairs and in work combat zones. The photo to the left is typical of her work because it is a foreign affair and depicts the poor.
  33. 33. Eugene Smith Eugene Smith “Japanese Suicide Charge” 1944 Smith is best known for his brutal war images. The photo to the left is typical of his work because it is a combat zone and has grotesque images of death. Many of his photographs were denied due to their violent nature.
  34. 34. Robert Frank Robert Frank From The Americans 1958 Frank is from Switzerland and came to America to photograph an outsider’s view on American lifestyle. The photograph to the left depicts a more enjoyable American pleasure of drive-in movies, but Frank also photographs on the other, less enjoyable spectrum to show a wide sample of American lifestyles and actions.
  35. 35. Eugene Richards Eugene Richards “Family Album, Dorchester, Massachusetts” 1976 Richards got personal with his photography and took many revealing pictures following people or families. He documented poverty, political issues, violence and more. The picture to the left is of a family representing their past, present and future endeavors and struggles.
  36. 36. Sebastiao Selgado Sebastiao Salgado “Refugees in the Korem Camp” 1984 The photo depicts a poor family covering up from the dust in the Korem Camp. Salgado is best known for this kind of work where he travels to less developed countries and documents peoples lifestyles there.
  37. 37. Photojournalistic use of multiplepictures to tell a public affairs /news story in a news magazine The story in this magazine is about a girl’s life who has been adopted and about meeting her adoptive mother. The pictures are used to show the girl throughout her life and with different mothers. This adds to the imagery of the story because you can actually see instead of imaging the relationship between the people and see the girl as she ages.
  38. 38. Advertising layout codes: Frame Framed layouts are just that: they contain a frame. The ad has margins or borders, which act to close down the space and contain the image. The ad to the left is framed due to its margins around the picture. The frame carries connotations of being secure, which inadvertently makes the reader feel secure in citi bank.
  39. 39. Advertising layout codes: copy-heavy Copy-heavy advertisements rely mostly on text to get their product across. It is often used for technical or medical devices because the company must convince you rationally on why to purchase the product. This ad is copy- heavy due to the large block of text in the upper 2/3 of the advertisement. It works well for ThermaCare because if the reader is looking for a hot patch, he or she will likely take the time to read through the facts and make a decision to buy based on the rationale presented.
  40. 40. Advertising layout codes: Postmodern Post-modern advertising breaks the codes of modern design, which is clean and formulated. This kind of advertising is obviously computer manipulated, often with drawing or type placed over images and containing multiple styles. The ad to the left is postmodern because it is clear that it has been manipulated (they did not photograph a phone shattering through glass while playing Underworld) and it has type, notably san serif, printed over the image. Postmodern advertisements carry the connotation of being something new, so it works well with a new kind of phone.
  41. 41. Advertising layout codes: picture window The picture window is a bleeding photo. It creates a feeling of expansive space and openness since the image goes right off the page. In this advertisement, the brain completes the bleed by imagining the woman and dog in a large space with a lot of nature, trees, flowers and maybe even a lake in the background. This helps you imagine that the perfume they are selling smells natural like the expansive environment they are in right now.
  42. 42. Gestalt Principles: similarity Similarity is grouping by size, shape, color, tone, texture, dir ection or content. In the KAY Jewelers ad, the brain groups the rights together due to their similar qualities, especially the four to the left due to their similar direction. This puts a special emphasis on the rings making them the most important thing in the ad.
  43. 43. Gestalt Principles: proximity & continuity Proximity is a grouping element that says close elements are attracted to each other and are perceived as a group. In this occasion, the soap bars are all stacked, thus close to each other, and the mind perceives them as a stacked group of soap bars instead of five individual bars. Continuity is when similar elements that are placed at a regular proximity may be perceived as continuous. The St. Ives bottles show continuity because they are placed at a regular interval and the brain pictures them to be never-ending off the page, especially since the bottles themselves touch the ends of the page.
  44. 44. Gestalt Principles: Graphic weight This picture is unbalanced in that there is more weight on the bottom. This is due to similar texture and color in the overlapping feet. They are also placed towards the bottom of the page, so they have a gravitational pull towards the bottom. The weight of this picture is down.
  45. 45. Gestalt Principles: Closure Closure is when the brain completes shapes that have been blocked off or go off the page, making them into their proper form. In this example, the brain completes the railing behind the woman. We know the railing does not cut off where the woman’s legs begin. Because our brain is not so caught up in wondering why there’s half a railing, it can spend more time focusing on the products in the ad.
  46. 46. Postmodern graphics Lawrence Weiner “Bits and pieces” 2005 Postmodern graphics break the rules of modern graphics. They are often attacks on beliefs, ideas or even people. Different types of media can be mixed including television. It is a complete deconstruction of what we expect art to be.
  47. 47. Cindy Sherman postmodern photo Cindy Sherman “Untitled #93” Sherman photographs many pictures of herself in a studio playing different roles. She is known for sexualized photographs of women where they look like they’re the victim.
  48. 48. Frank Gehry postmodern architecture Frank Gehry “Dancing House” Gehry’s work is a completely new take on architecture. He uses raw materials such as wood and metal and creates new shapes and figures that you wouldn’t expect to see in buildings. They feel unbalanced, asymmetrical, and raw.
  49. 49. Goffman’s women’s poses ofdeference: Women as objects Many advertisements show women as being objects through representing an entire woman through only body parts. The parts may even be used as props for products. In the ad to the left only the woman’s hand and lower arm are showing in a picture that is flooded with male confidence. The hand is simply there to please the male figure.
  50. 50. Goffman’s women’s poses ofdeference: Licensed withdrawal Licensed withdrawal is when a woman is represented in an advertisement with a flooding of emotion, whether it be delight while sucking on fingers or pleasure with a diverted head or gaze. In this advertisement, the woman has become withdrawn from real life as she focuses her attention and imagination to all the thoughts (probably sexual) that arise as she smells the man’s cologne. This is especially noticeable because the man is not withdrawn, but instead tall and alert.
  51. 51. Goffman’s women’s poses of deference: This photograph has an array of poses of deference. She is sitting on the ground, putting her beneath you. Her dress is very childlike, making her look the same way. She’s giving you the “come hither” look as if she wants a man to come. The perfume bottle and it’s positioning is used as a phallic object. She is caressing the bottle with the “feminine touch”, which adds to it being a phallic object.
  52. 52. Goffman’s women’s poses of deference: This photo also has a number of poses of deference. Again, she is on the ground with the camera above her. She is the attention of not only males, but also many females. Most notably she is acting extremely childlike. She is doing weird roller-skating poses in public, her hair is in two mini buns, she’s wearing knee-high socks and youthful clothing. It makes her look very silly and counteracts being a proactive roller- skater.