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# Case study 05

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### Case study 05

1. 1. Step 1: Setting Up the Still Life 1. Create a random moment in time – arrange objects and forms which make sense together. Then think about how light and shadow will play a role in the still life. 2. Elements & Principles of Design – think about color, shape/form, texture and the other elements. How will you create Unity, Harmony, Variety and Emphasis? Arrange objects with elemental characteristics which accomplish the higher principles of design. 3. Space – use space specifically. Negative space is as important as positive space. Have objects overlap and show distance in space by arranging objects in front of one another. Avoid objects “kissing” one another. 4. Line and Pattern – create visual interest using leading lines, perspective lines and patterns. If your objects do not inherently show this, then allude to it.
2. 2. Step 2: Still Life Composition 1. Levels, Height & Space – use vertical space and horizontal space. Some of the strongest compositions are based on the triangle. Have your focal point rise towards the top while your heavy, larger and more cumbersome objects should sit at the base. 2. Open & Closed - Decide between an open or closed composition. Closed compositions have all elements completely contained by your frame, whereas open compositions have items extending outside the visual panel. Both have their strengths. 3. Symmetry – A perfectly symmetrical composition often looks forced. Although asymmetrical still lifes can look uncomfortable. Think about balance – is one side too heavy or have too many objects? Find a middle ground between symmetry and asymmetry. 4. Rhythm – lines and objects should lead the eye. Create a rhythm in your still life by repeating various elements within the composition. The eye will automatically locate and move to each instance within the piece where shapes, colors and patterns are intentionally repeated.
3. 3. Step 3: Setting Up the Scene 1. Simple Backdrop – Wrinkles and ridges in a still life photograph – unless a part of the setting – will be distracting to your main subject. Be vigilant about keeping your backdrops smooth and simple. 2. Vary your Lights – to create contrast, it is important to use different types of lights and different directional lights. The main light should be strongest, and the second light should simply provide a nice fill. Also, use side lighting, underlighting and overlighting to enhance the mood. 3. Use Angles – lighting from varying angles is only half the battle. We see life 3 dimensionally. For this reason, the most dynamic photographs are the ones in which the audience could walk into the scene, or reach out and touch the subject. Also think about perspectives - a photo is most interesting when you give a new perspective to something that is ordinary.
4. 4. Step 4: Positioning the Lights 1. Light Setup: Key Light – The key light is the most important light. In a twolight set up the key light is generally placed above the camera and at about 45° angle to the subject. For flatter, less directional lighting, you might want to place it above and directly behind you camera, with a diffusing filter in front of the light. 2. Light Setup: Fill Light(s) - The fill light is placed opposite the key light to soften the shadows. Either the positioning of the light or the relative wattage of the two lights can be used to make the intensity of your fill light less than that of your key light. 3. Light Setup: Additional Lights - Your third light can be uses in a number of ways. It can be used to increase highlights. It can also be used as a background light, to separate subject from the background. Try this effect when shooting on a small set, to add the illusion of more space. Aimed directly on the background, you can brighten your shot, add separation between the subject and the background, or use color effects gels on your background light to create any color background you like.
5. 5. Useful Hints & Tips 1. The Flash – a camera’s flash is a useful burst of light. The flash built in most cameras today are fine for quick snapshots from 3 to about 10 feet away. This built in flash gives good (not great) results. The problem with the flash alone is that the image will appear flat. Studio lighting helps counteract this issue. 2. Backgrounds - White, gray or blue backgrounds work well with most subjects. Remember, simple is key! and Reflector Glass - Clear glassware works best if the main light is coming from behind subject. This emphasizes the shape and defines the object so that it does not blend into the background. 4. Fill light = box light Textures - If your subject has a rough texture you want to show, set the main light off to the side more. This will create shadows along the edges of the texture and enhance the lines. 3. Key light = flash 5. Fill light = box light Umbrella (reflector) Key light = flash Fill light = box light Umbrella (reflector) Back light = small light or slave Details & Small Objects - A silver reflector or mirror is helpful for showing more detail on small objects. 6. Key light = flash Shadows – to soften shadows position lights closer to the object. To increase shadows place small directional lights around the object. Or one or two very strong lights from above and below.
6. 6. Case Study Unlike a tutorial or step-by-step walk through, a Case Study presents a different sort of challenge to the student-artist. You are given the final outcome and asked to develop steps in order to recreate that outcome. For instance, you are given an image and you will have to try and figure out how you can make a copy or mimic this image. This is a great way to challenge your skills and force you to think about steps and procedures (instead of just winging it!). Good luck! 1. Create an backlighting image showcasing 2. Create an overlighting image showcasing 3. Create an image directional lighting directional lighting showcasing and multi- 4. Create a silhouette 5. Create an image showcasing the rules and methods for creating a still life 6. Create an image showcasing form, shape, vertical/horizontal space, positive & negative space and the interplay between lighting and shadows 7. Create texture an image showcasing
7. 7. Step 1: Lighting the Model 1. Light the Background/Backdrop first 2. Aim the light at the backdrop behind the model 3. Overlight the hair from above and behind the model 4. Use a softbox to diffuse some of the light 5. Use a “kicker light” (also known as the accent light) to highlight the opposite areas highlighted by the main light or key light(s) 6. Use the main light to add dramatic shadows and highlights to the subject 7. Aim this light to flatter the model’s natural beauty 8. Use a fill light to soften shadows, soften hard edges and control negative space 9. Setup all five lights together so that the model is completely lit
8. 8. Step 2: Posing the Model 1. the ¾ turn 2. 45º angle head-tilt 3. projecting the chin out toward the camera 4. using a slightly higher camera position 5. avoid “football shoulders” by having the subject turn to a 45 ⁰ angle 6. have the subject sit tall – no slouching! 7. never tip a man’s head to the high (feminine) shoulder as he will look feminine 8. women's heads can be tipped toward either shoulder, but the feminine shoulder is more appealing 9. make the pose look natural 10. the legs are almost parallel to the camera plane 11. the shoulders are nearly perpendicular to the camera plane and are turned at a 45º angle 12. the head (and therefore the face) are at an angle slightly off of the shoulder, pointed to the camera left what not to do what to do
9. 9. Step 3: Cropping & Photoshop 1. shooting portraits from a distance will increase your depth-of-field and blur out the background (also can be achieved in Photoshop) 2. when cropping an image, there are several things to keep in mind: a) crop above or below joints to avoid “amputated limbs,” b) leave some background to avoid “claustrophobic pictures” and c) do not crop tops of heads 3. Photoshop Touchup Checklist: • • • • • • • • • • • Blemishes Wrinkles Stray hairs (fly-aways) Odd shadows or hard shadows Color tones Hair color Levels Brightness/Contrast Hue/Saturation Softness Lighting/Highlights
10. 10. Photoshop Tutorials “Compositing Exposures” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Open a photograph in Photoshop duplicate the layer twice and rename the layers in from top to bottom: COLOR | BLACK AND WHITE | ORIGINAL turn off the COLOR layer and edit the BLACK AND WHITE layer using: Black and White, Levels, Curves, Bright/Cont duplicate this layer and rename it EXPOSURE 1 IMAGE  ADJUSTMENTS  EXPOSURE, adjust the sliders to create an underexposed, dark image then use the ERASER on a SOFT ROUND brush and erase all of the highlights (bringing them back) repeat steps 4 – 6, but duplicate the BLACK AND WHITE layer and instead of a dark exposure, make a bright overexposed version MERGE all three black and white layers (B&W, EXP 1, EXP 2)  rename this BLACK AND WHITE IMAGE  ADJUSTMENTS  GRADIENT MAP, use a BLACK to WHITE map turn the COLOR layer back on  change the BLENDING MODE to COLOR IMAGE  ADJUSTMENTS  use the color adjusters: COLOR BALANCE, HUE/SAT, PHOTO FILTER etc. Drag your ORIGINAL LAYER to the top Experiment with BLENDING LAYERS and OPACITY (this brings back any details you may have lost in the editing process) FLATTEN the IMAGE SELECT ALL  EDIT  COPY (CTRL+A then CTRL + C) UNDO or use the HISTORY to go back to the step right before flattening then EDIT  PASTE (CTRL+V) Rename LAYER 1  EDITS | Change LAYER OPACITY to 65% FILTER  BLUR  GAUSSIAN BLUR (to taste) Use a SOFT ROUND ERASER and erase in details, highlights or any areas of importance Then CROP your image
11. 11. Photoshop Tutorials “Blemish & Wrinkle Fixer” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Open an image that needs “touch-ups” Enter QUICK MASK MODE Using a DROPSHADOW BRUSH (I prefer the seventh brush down) paint over each of the blemishes you would like to fix – this will also work for wrinkles, moles and other imperfections Be sure to use DIFFERENT sized BRUSHES for those LARGER areas that need correction FILTER BLUR  GAUSSIAN BLUR, use anywhere between 3 and 5 EXIT QUICK MASK MODE On the TOOLBAR find the “band-aid icon” which represents the HEALING BRUSH HOVER over an area of skin that is not a highlight or a shadow and has no blemishes – ALT-CLICK with the mouse Then “paint” over any area the GAUSSIAN BLUR tool didn’t fix Use a combination of the two methods to select areas that can use color correction – IMAGE  ADJUSTMENTS  COLOR BALANCE or while on the LAYER click the “half circle icon” at the bottom of the menu, this creates a FILL ADJUSTMENT LAYER over your current selected LAYER
12. 12. Photoshop Tutorials “Magazine Edits – Part 1” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Open an image that needs “touch-ups” SELECT ALL  EDIT CUT, EDIT PASTE Then: LAYER  LAYER STYLE  COLOR OVERLAY  SOFT LIGHT  Color 7f5747 CLEAR LAYER STYLE Turn the DUPLICATE layer back on. Using a DROP SHADOW ERASER, erase all of the flesh tones on this DUPLICATE LAYER. The person should get an instant “tan.” • Using Magazine Airbrushing: Magazine Photo Editors often use a technique called airbrushing to alter and improve a “model’s look.” There are many ethical dilemmas when it comes to such edits. However, learning how to do it will help you edit your images. • For the most part, airbrushing is similar to Photochrome. Here are the steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create a NEW BLANK LAYER Use a SOFT/BLURRY PAINTBRUSH at a LOW OPACITY (30% or so) PAINT over areas you would like to alter Use a SOFT/BLURRY ERASER at a LOW OPACITY to clean up areas that were not precise Areas most often airbrushed: • Cheekbones and forehead • Hair color (tinting) • Eye color (enhancing) • Lips or other areas that might need makeup touchups