Photography andGraphic Manipulation By Laurie Gagne Survey of Instructional Technology
Photographic rules of composition and framing The following photographs areexamples of the 10 rules for creating well photographed pictures.
Centered with HeadroomThis is my beautiful step daughter Jessica (who loves tofish with her dad). Notice that she is centered (with her fish) in the center of the frame.
The Rule of ThirdsImagine that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2horizontal lines. The rule of thirds says that you should position the most important elements in your scene along these lines, or at the points where they intersect. Doing so will add balance and interest to your photo. Some cameras even offer an option to superimpose a rule of thirds grid over the LCD screen, making it even easier to use.The basketball and the lay-up is thefocus of this shot. My son’s hand andthe basketball are the focus.
Another “Rule of Thirds” Photo This photo exhibits the practice of framing a shot using the “rule of thirds” concept to give the subjects “talking room
VIEWPOINTBefore photographing your subject, take time to think aboutwhere you will shoot it from. Our viewpoint has a massiveimpact on the composition of our photo, and as a result itcan greatly affect the message that the shot conveys. Ratherthan just shooting from eye level, consider photographingfrom high above, down at ground level, from the side, fromthe back, from a long way away, from very close up, and soon.
Extreme Wide Shot (AKA = EWS)The view is so far from the subject that he isnt even visible.Often used as an establishing shot.
Very Wide Shot (AKA = VWS) The subject is visible but the emphasis is stillon placing him in his environment
Wide ShotAKA =Long Shot The subject takes up the full frame,or at least as much as comfortably possible. This is know as a Long Shot. My son (Colton) isthe subject in thisphoto. Notice he iscloser now but you can still see his whole body in the picture.
Mid ShotShows some part of the subject inmore detail while still giving animpression of the whole subject. Notice that now you can only see half of his body
Medium Close Up This shot fallshalfway between a Mid Shot and aClose Up. You can see even more detail in thesubject with very little of the background area.
Close Up A certain feature or part of the subjecttakes up thewhole frame
The Extreme Close UpThis shot gets extremely close to the subject and focuses on“one” feature.
The Eye Level ShotEye-Level: This isthe most common view, being the real-world angle that we are all used to. It shows subjects as we would expect to see them in real life. It is a fairly neutral shot.
Low AngleThis shows the subject from below, giving them the impression of being more powerful or dominant.
High Angle A high angle shows the subject fromabove, i.e. the camera is angled down towards the subject.
Using LINES When considering thecomposition of an imageone of the elements that can produce goodpictures is using “lines”. The lines that can befound in images are very powerful elements thatwith a little practice canadd dynamic impact to a photograph in terms of mood as well as how they lead an image’s viewer into a photo. Lines lead the viewer into the scene.
Using LINESWhen we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. By thinking about how you place lines in your composition, you can affect the way we view the image, pulling usinto the picture, towards the subject, or on a journey "through" the scene. There are many different types of line -straight, diagonal, curvy, zigzag, radial etc - and each can be used to enhance our photos composition.
Using Natural Framing The world is full of objects which make perfect natural frames, such as trees, archways and holes. By placingthese around the edge ofthe composition you help to isolate the main subject from the outside world. The result is a more focused image which draws your eye naturally to the main point of interest. Petit Jean
Creating Depth Because photography is a two-dimensionalmedium, we have to chooseour composition carefully to conveys the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene. You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground, middle ground and background. Another useful composition technique is overlapping, where you deliberately partially obscure one object with Petit Jean Gravesite another. The human eye naturally recognizes these layers and mentally separates themout, creating an image with more depth.
Using Symmetry and Patterns We are surrounded by symmetry and patterns, both natural and man-made., They can make for very eye- catchingcompositions, particularl y in situations where they are not expected.Another great way to use them is to break the symmetry or pattern in some way, introducingtension and a focal point to the scene.
Don’t lose your picture in the backgroundHow many times have youtaken what you thoughtwould be a great shot, only tofind that the final image lacksimpact because the subjectblends into a busybackground? The human eyeis excellent at distinguishingbetween different elements ina scene, whereas a camerahas a tendency to flatten theforeground and background,and this can often ruin anotherwise great photo.Thankfully this problem isusually easy to overcome atthe time of shooting - lookaround for a plain andunobtrusive background and This snake on the walking trail gets lost in thecompose your shot so that it background. The hiker can see him but the viewerdoesnt distract or detract of the picture has difficulty picking him out.from the subject.
Cropping out the non-important contentOften a photo will lack impact because the main subject is so small it becomes lost among the clutter of its surroundings. Bycropping tight around the subject you eliminate the background "noise", ensuring the subject gets the viewers undivided attention.
Feel Free to Experiment… You can always hit “DELETE”Since the invention of the digital camera, we nolonger have to worry about film processing costsor running out of shots. As a result,experimenting with our photos composition hasbecome a real possibility; we can fire off tons ofshots and delete the unwanted ones later atabsolutely no extra cost. Take advantage of thisfact and experiment with your composition - younever know whether an idea will work until youtry it.