Energy conservationTechnologies in heritage buildings By ANIRUDH B 11MN01
Ancient techniques adopted by our ancestorsNatural LightingNatural ventilationEvaporative coolingSpace coolingSolar chimneySolar pondWind towersAncient Air-conditioners
Energy conservation TechnologiesNatural Lighting: Solar energy was extensively used by our ancestorsfor natural lighting A typical Chettinad house Panthaleon ,rome
Energy conservation TechnologiesNatural ventilation: A Passive ventilation system generates anupdraft to pull air through the building
Energy conservation TechnologiesNatural ventilation: Relies on the natural driving force, that is,energy from the sun
Energy conservation TechnologiesEvaporative cooling: This passive cooling technique was found byIndians and latter followed by Romanians, Egyptians and many others. Hawa Mahal of Jaipur
Energy conservation TechnologiesInterior Space cooling: This space cooling technology was widelyimplemented in Ancient Indian temples.
Energy conservation Technologies Interior Space cooling: Massive dome structures absorb solar load heat during the day and let out in the night Taj mahal,IndiaThe central dome -200ft tall, 60ft diameter 14ft thickness The central dome -18000 ft sq. area, 144ft diameter Gol Gumbaz,Jaipur 10ft thickness
Energy conservation TechnologiesInterior Space cooling: ISHA is one of the modern day architecturalmarvel which is built using the ancient building techniques ISHA Dhyanalingam, coimbatore
Energy conservation TechnologiesInterior Space cooling: Massive dome structures absorb solar loadheat during the day and let out in the night Distance from floor to top is equal to the diameter of the dome 142ft. The dome gets thinner as it approaches the oculus (7.8m diameter) The thickness of the dome Nearing the oculus is 1.2m Panthaleon, Rome- Aerial view
Energy conservation TechnologiesHeat gain through exterior wallsHeat conduction through Exterior walls is given by, 𝑞 𝑒,𝑡−𝑛∆ 𝑞 𝑒,𝑡 = 𝑏 𝑛 𝑇 𝑠𝑜𝑙,𝑡−𝑛∆ − 𝑑𝑛 − 𝑇𝑖 𝑐𝑛 𝐴 𝐴 𝑛=0 𝑛=1 𝑛=0Where,T=time, hΔ=time interval, h 𝑇 𝑠𝑜𝑙,𝑡−𝑛∆ =sol-air temperature at time t-nΔ, deg C 𝑞 𝑒,𝑡−𝑛∆ =conduction heat gain at time t-nΔ, W𝑏 𝑛 , 𝑐 𝑛 , 𝑑 𝑛 = conduction transfer function coefficients (fromASHRAE handbook)A= Interior surface area of wall,m^2
Energy conservation TechnologiesHeat gain through ceilings, floors and partition wallsHeat conduction through ceilings is given by, 𝑞 𝑐 = 𝑈𝐴(𝑇 𝑐 − 𝑇𝑖 )Where,U=Overall heat transfer coefficient of ceilings, floors orpartition walls, W/m^2.KA=Surface area of ceiling, floor or partition wall,m^2 𝑇 𝑐 =Temperature of the ceiling, floor or partition walls,deg C 𝑇𝑖 = Temperature of the indoor space, deg C
Energy conservation TechnologiesInternal Heat gain: PeopleInternal heat gain due to occupants is given by,Sensible heat load, 𝑄 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑁 𝑝 𝑆𝐻𝐺Latent heat load, 𝑄 𝐿𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑁 𝑝 𝐿𝐻𝐺Where,𝑁 𝑝 = No. of persons 𝑆𝐻𝐺= Sensible heat gain of each person, W 𝐿𝐻𝐺= Latent heat gain of each person, W
Energy conservation TechnologiesWind Towers: Persians introduced this method of capturing coolair and transferring it to the building Wind towers, Dubai
Energy conservation TechnologiesWind Towers: water was added via pools of collected rainwaterthat further cooled the air flowing over them as they evaporated Wind tower in a shopping complex, Saudi Arabia
Energy conservation TechnologiesAncient Air-ConditionerInvented by Ding Huan of Han dynasty and improved by tangdynasty emperor Xuanzong with water powered rotary fan wheels
ConclusionOur ancestors had a better understanding of the natural forces and its impact on human life.They lived a life along with nature with peace and harmony.Therefore, we should adopt our ancestral energy conservation technologies in modern day buildings to ensure a better place for human dwellings.
References1) Surendra H. Shah,“A combination of modern technology and heritage techniques”, Journal of air conditioning and refrigeration, apr-jun 2004.2) Chinese Heritage Buildings, XTRALIS3) Indian temples- a structural engineering marvel, A Brief engineering report on Indian temples, Apr 20114) J.K.Nayak, “Passive solar architecture Basics”, Energy systems Engineering, IIT Mumbai5) Handbook of air-conditioning and Refrigeration6) Cooling load calculations and principles, A.Bhatia, Continuing Education and development, Inc.