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Cell regulation cancer 5.3


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Cell regulation cancer 5.3

  1. 1. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle KEY CONCEPT Cell cycle regulation is necessary for healthy growth.
  2. 2. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Internal and external factors regulate cell division. • External factors include physical and chemical signals. • Growth factors are proteins that stimulate cell division. – Most mammal cells form a single layer in a culture dish and stop dividing once they touch other cells.
  3. 3. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Two of the most important internal factors are kinases and cyclins. – Cyclin: group of proteins that triggers action of kinases – Kinase: enzymes that affect molecule’s activity - kin = Kinetics, kinein = “to move” - ase = enzyme – Together these both help a cell advance to different External stages of the cell cycle growth factors • External factors trigger internal factors, Triggered which affect the cell cycle. cell cycle Cyclins activities Kinases
  4. 4. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Apoptosis is programmed cell death. – a normal feature of healthy organisms – caused by a cell’s production of self-destructive enzymes – occurs in webbed fingers development of infants
  5. 5. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Cell division is uncontrolled in cancer. • Cancer cells form disorganized clumps called tumors. – Benign tumors remain clustered and can be removed. – Malignant tumors metastasize, or break away, and can form more tumors. (noun = metastasis) normal cell cancer cell bloodstream
  6. 6. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Different growth patterns of tumors
  7. 7. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Cancer cells do not carry out necessary functions. • Cancer cells come from normal cells with damage to genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.
  8. 8. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle • Carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer. – UV radiation – Smoking – Other forms of radiation (nuclear radiation, x-rays, etc.) • Standard cancer treatments typically kill both cancerous and healthy cells.
  9. 9. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle Viruses can also cause cancer!
  10. 10. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle How are cancers named? Type of tissue of origin: • Carcinoma: tumor of the internal or external lining of the body (skin & covering and lining of organs and internal passageways). • Sarcoma: cancer that originates in supportive and connective tissues such as bones, tendons, cartilage, muscle, and fat. • Leukemias("liquid cancers" or "blood cancers") are cancers of the bone marrow (the site of blood cell production). • Lymphomas develop in the glands or nodes of the lymphatic system, a network of vessels, nodes, and organs.
  11. 11. 5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle How are cancers named? First site of origin: