Characteristics of cells

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Characteristics of cells

  1. 1. Characteristics of Cells Chapter 3 Unit 1
  2. 2. Cells <ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of all living things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human body composed of approximately 75 trillion cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form begets function </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Composite Cell <ul><li>There are no “typical” cells in humans </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cell Parts <ul><li>Under the light microscope… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Must use a stain to see these structures </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Stained Cells Human Cheek Cells
  6. 6. Cell Parts <ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures with special functions in the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Little Organs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the cytosol (liquid part of cell) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cell Parts <ul><li>Membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally form a bilayer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar (hydrophobic) tails group in membrane interior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar (hydrophilic) heads are forced to the outside of the membrane bilayer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Membranes
  9. 9. Cell Parts <ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds all human cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living & Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates in signal transduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable (AKA “Semipermeable”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a barrier to keep “stuff” out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds cell contents in </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cell Parts <ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Mosaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids move around each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid bilayer is always in motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This feature ensures membrane is both stable & flexible at same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrate molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane Features </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cell Parts <ul><li>Plasma Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmembrane Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Span the entire membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channels for movement of specific molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only on either the inside or outside of membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor membrane to cyctoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Markers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cell Parts <ul><li>Membrane Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex network of membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transports materials throughout cell using vesicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Communicates” with other organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studded with ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for breakdown of fats and various drugs/alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cell Parts <ul><li>Membrane Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gogli Apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, membranous sacs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts vesicles from ER containing proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically alters and prepares proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packages and sends proteins for export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane-bound delivery system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cell Parts <ul><li>Membrane Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous sacs that contain powerful enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help break down foreign material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous sacs that contain powerful enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break down toxic waste products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce bile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxify alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cell Parts <ul><li>Nonmembranous Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of protein synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be attached to ER or free floating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules/Microfilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of cytoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, threadlike strands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cell Parts <ul><li>Nonmembranous Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia/Flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for cellular movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia are short and numerous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flagella are long and usually singular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made of microtubules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help move chromosomes during cell division </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cell Parts <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a membranous nuclear envelope (double layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the cell’s chromatin (DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleolus is a dense area composed of newly synthesized ribosomes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cell Parts <ul><li>Membrane Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actually have two membranes (inner and outer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of cellular respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release energy from glucose </li></ul></ul></ul>

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