©2014 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 2
Birth to Thirty-Six Months: Physical
and Cognitive/Language
Develop...
Differences between Development and
Learning
• A controversy:
– Nature versus Nurture
– The best conclusion to date is tha...
Development
• Cumulative sequences and patterns that
represent progressive, refined changes that
move a child from simple ...
Learning
• The acquisition of knowledge and skills
through systematic study, instruction,
practice, and/or experience
• Bo...
Patterns of Physical Development
• Brain Development
– Brain development results from complex interactions
between nature ...
Patterns of Physical Development
• Brain Development
– The brain is a complex system which is divided into
three main part...
Patterns of Physical Development
• Neuron pathways
• Reflexes
• Physical growth: milestones for height,
weight, etc.
• Hea...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Cognitive Development – Piaget’s theory of reasoning
—Newborns use all th...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Types of Knowledge
– Physical knowledge
• Movement of objects, changes in...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Play and Cognitive Development
–Play is the child’s laboratory for cognit...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Cognitive Development – Vygotsky’s
sociocultural theory
– For Vygotsky, k...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Language Development
– Language is a tool for thinking
– When adults and ...
Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development
• Infants must learn strategies for sending
verbal and nonverbal messages t...
Early Intervention: Children with
Special Rights
• Taking a developmental perspective means
valuing all of the individual ...
Children with Special Rights
• Categories of special rights infants and toddlers
may have regarding physical and
cognitive...
Spotlight on Research
• Cleft Lip/Palate and Socio-emotional
development
– It has been long assumed that children with cle...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• Explain how the growth of the brain
demonstrates the complex interaction between
nature ...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• Discuss Piaget’s stages of cognitive development in
terms of learning experiences for tw...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• Why should infant and toddler educators think
about a child having special rights rather...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Swim ppt ch02

690 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
690
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Swim ppt ch02

  1. 1. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 2 Birth to Thirty-Six Months: Physical and Cognitive/Language Developmental Patterns
  2. 2. Differences between Development and Learning • A controversy: – Nature versus Nurture – The best conclusion to date is that child development is a very complex process occurring through natural sequences and patterns that depend on learning and experience, among other processes ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Development • Cumulative sequences and patterns that represent progressive, refined changes that move a child from simple to more complex physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional growth and maturity ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Learning • The acquisition of knowledge and skills through systematic study, instruction, practice, and/or experience • Both overt behavior changes and internal changes in perceptions occur during the first three years of life • Each child has an individual “map” for development and learning ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Patterns of Physical Development • Brain Development – Brain development results from complex interactions between nature and nurture – The newborn’s brain takes in information from the environment, using all senses – Infants and toddlers are in the process of forming nerve pathways, the quality of which is affected by nutrition and experiences ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Patterns of Physical Development • Brain Development – The brain is a complex system which is divided into three main parts: • Hindbrain (autonomic systems) • Midbrain (connector) • Forebrain (includes cerebral cortex), marks us as human – Brain development during infancy is best promoted when caregivers engage in DAP and create positive relationships – Responsive caregiving is a major factor in brain development ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Patterns of Physical Development • Neuron pathways • Reflexes • Physical growth: milestones for height, weight, etc. • Hearing and Vision Development • Motor Development: milestones for gross and fine motor control – Stability, Locomotion, and Manipulation ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development – Piaget’s theory of reasoning —Newborns use all their senses—listening, seeing, tasting, touching, and smelling—to learn about their world —Central to Piaget’s theory is that there are stages of cognitive development; that is, four-month-olds are cognitively different from 24-month-olds. Piaget contended that the sequence of development is the same for all children. However, the age and rate at which it occurs differs from child to child —Piaget’s first two stages of cognitive development involve children between birth and three years of age —Sensorimotor —Preoperational ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Types of Knowledge – Physical knowledge • Movement of objects, changes in objects – Logico-mathematical knowledge • Relationships between objects – Social-arbitrary knowledge • Names of objects and rules ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Play and Cognitive Development –Play is the child’s laboratory for cognitive trial and error and rehearsal for real-life problem solving –There are many types of exploratory and pretend play for infants and toddlers ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development – Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory – For Vygotsky, knowledge is co-constructed through social interactions – The most important tool for humans is language – Higher cognitive processes develop from verbal and nonverbal social interactions – Scaffolding involves changing the support given a learner in the course of teaching a skill or concept ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Language Development – Language is a tool for thinking – When adults and children talk with infants and toddlers, they provide examples of the four basic components of language: • Phonology • Semantics • Syntax • Pragmatics – Provide a language rich environment ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development • Infants must learn strategies for sending verbal and nonverbal messages to others: – Eye contact – Coo – Babble – Jargon – Telegraphic Speech – Baby signs ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Early Intervention: Children with Special Rights • Taking a developmental perspective means valuing all of the individual characteristics for each infant and toddler • IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) • Special Rights – To value differences and potential – The first source of information should be the child and family, then specialists who provide ‘at-risk’ services. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Children with Special Rights • Categories of special rights infants and toddlers may have regarding physical and cognitive/language development: – Children with Motor Disabilities – Biologically At-Risk Infants and Toddlers – Children with Visual Disabilities – Children with Hearing Disabilities – Children who are Medically Fragile – Children with Cognitive or General Development Disorders – Children with Language and Communication Disorders ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Spotlight on Research • Cleft Lip/Palate and Socio-emotional development – It has been long assumed that children with cleft deformities would suffer from a variety of social and emotional outcomes – The importance of early intervention is evident for children with cleft lip/palate – By age 7, children showed nearly equivalent levels of adjustment (for those with early intervention) – Interventions to facilitate positive mother-child social interactions are particularly vital ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Explain how the growth of the brain demonstrates the complex interaction between nature (i.e., genetics or biology) and nurture (i.e., environmental factors). • Describe how being born with a physical deformity such as cleft lip/palate influences not only physical development but also social and emotional development. • Name the major milestones for motor development from birth to three years of age. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Discuss Piaget’s stages of cognitive development in terms of learning experiences for two-year-olds. Include concepts such as assimilation, accommodation, and disequilibrium in your answer. • Provide a specific example of each of Piaget’s types of knowledge. • Use Vygotsky’s theory to explain how you would scaffold a toddler with the skill of dressing, including the concept of private speech. • Explain the typical patterns of language development ant the role adults play in the process. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Why should infant and toddler educators think about a child having special rights rather than special needs? • Explain three special rights very young children might have in relationship to physical and cognitive/language development. What would you do if you suspected a child had one of those special rights? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

×