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Chapter 3
Birth to Thirty-Six Months: Social
and Emotional Developmental
Patterns
©2014 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reser...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Human infants are totally dependent upon the
environment
• Children should feel secure...
Patterns of Emotional Development
Erikson’s Psychosocial theory
– Theory adds to our understanding of how children
develop...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Separate and Together: Mahler
– Personality development, security, trust, and self-
co...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Temperament: Chess, Thomas & Birch
– All children are born with particular temperament...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Emotional Intelligence
• Emotional competence and self-regulation
• The limbic system ...
Patterns of Emotional Development
Goleman defined five domains that are learned
early in life and are necessary for high e...
Patterns of Social Development
• Relationship Development
– When the caregiver respects the baby’s body, the
baby feels se...
Patterns of Social Development
• Attachment Theory
–The infant’s first years of life are dedicated
to the development of s...
Patterns of Social Development
• Attachment (continued)
• Infants need to establish emotional attachment with
their caregi...
Patterns of Social Development
• Relationships with Peers
– Infants demonstrate an increased desire to interact
socially w...
Patterns of Social Development
• Self-Esteem
– Self-responsibility: caregivers should help children
take responsibility fo...
Patterns of Social Development
• Prosocial behaviors
–Adults who provide feedback about
appropriate, helpful behaviors, em...
Early Intervention: Children with
Special Rights
• Areas of special rights in regards to emotional
and social development:...
Spotlight on Research
• Father-child interactions and developmental outcomes
– Researchers have shifted their focus to inc...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• How do parent-child interactions impact healthy
identity development according to Erikso...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• What does it mean for a child to be securely
attached? Insecurely attached? Why is it
im...
Checkpoint Discussion Questions
• Explain three special rights very young children
might have in relationship to emotional...
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  1. 1. Chapter 3 Birth to Thirty-Six Months: Social and Emotional Developmental Patterns ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Patterns of Emotional Development • Human infants are totally dependent upon the environment • Children should feel secure initiating responses to the environment based on interest and curiosity • Infants experience and express the full range of human emotion from ecstasy to deep sorrow • Adults should help children learn to cope with pain and sorrow ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Patterns of Emotional Development Erikson’s Psychosocial theory – Theory adds to our understanding of how children develop emotionally by responding to life’s challenges – Children need reasonable freedom and expectations • Basic trust versus mistrust • Autonomy versus shame and doubt • Initiative versus guilt ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Patterns of Emotional Development • Separate and Together: Mahler – Personality development, security, trust, and self- concept are all related to the attachment between infant and caregivers and how separation- individuation from caregivers is conducted and experienced by the child • Separation-Individuation ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Patterns of Emotional Development • Temperament: Chess, Thomas & Birch – All children are born with particular temperaments, the basic style which characterizes a person’s behavior. – A growing body of research strongly suggests that child-rearing practices and other environmental factors can dramatically influence temperament during the first three years. – Nine behavioral categories of Temperament – Goodness of fit model of caregiver:child match ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Patterns of Emotional Development • Emotional Intelligence • Emotional competence and self-regulation • The limbic system of the brain is responsible for emotional control • High levels of cortisol are negatively associated with cognitive abilities and attachment • Research shows a relationship between quality child care and levels of cortisol in children • Unresponsive, harmful, stressful or neglectful caregiving behaviors affect the development of the brain negatively ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Patterns of Emotional Development Goleman defined five domains that are learned early in life and are necessary for high emotional intelligence and healthy identity development: – Knowing one’s emotions – Managing emotions – Motivating oneself – Recognizing emotions in others – Handling relationships ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Patterns of Social Development • Relationship Development – When the caregiver respects the baby’s body, the baby feels secure and loved. – When the caregiver respects the baby’s feelings and provides a positive emotional connection, the baby feels secure. – The skill of handling relationships requires that the caregiver manage her own emotions, demonstrate sensitivity to the child’s feelings, and communicate in a way that creates interactional synchrony. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Patterns of Social Development • Attachment Theory –The infant’s first years of life are dedicated to the development of strong emotional ties to the caregiver (Bowlby) –Researchers measure attachment for young toddlers using an experimental design called Strange Situations (Ainsworth) –Attachment correlates to specific caregiver behaviors ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Patterns of Social Development • Attachment (continued) • Infants need to establish emotional attachment with their caregivers (primary caregiving) • Each child needs to have a caregiver respond sensitively and consistently to cries and cues of distress • Each child and primary caregiver need special times together • The caregiver must treat each child as a special, important person ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Patterns of Social Development • Relationships with Peers – Infants demonstrate an increased desire to interact socially with peers over the first year of life – Toddlers develop friendships and social skills of more complexity – As language increases, so does the toddler’s social world – Securely attached children tend to be more independent, empathic, and socially competent ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Patterns of Social Development • Self-Esteem – Self-responsibility: caregivers should help children take responsibility for their own wants and needs appropriate to their developmental level – Enlightened self interest: toddlers learn to balance awareness of own needs and feelings with the needs and feelings of others – Positive attitude: caregivers help infants and toddlers internalize the moral values, beliefs and attitudes of people in their environment ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Patterns of Social Development • Prosocial behaviors –Adults who provide feedback about appropriate, helpful behaviors, emphasizing the impact of the child’s actions on another person, tend to be associated with children who engage in more prosocial behavior ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Early Intervention: Children with Special Rights • Areas of special rights in regards to emotional and social development: – Children with Autism – Attachment Disorder – Mental Health Disorders – Children with Multiple Disabilities – Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAS/FAE). – Environmentally-Promoted Problems for Infants and Toddlers ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Spotlight on Research • Father-child interactions and developmental outcomes – Researchers have shifted their focus to include the important and differential roles that fathers play in developmental outcomes – Fathers seem to provide an important context as children are learning to regulate their emotions – Various aspects of father involvement were associated with greater babbling and exploring objects with a purpose as well as a lower likelihood of infant cognitive delay, and with complex symbol use and symbolic play – Educators need to create policies and engage in practices that actively involve fathers in the care and education of their infants and toddlers ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • How do parent-child interactions impact healthy identity development according to Erikson, Mahler and Stern? • What factors influence how teachers use the concept of goodness-of-fit with children in their care? Why is it important to realize this concept with each child? • How does a child’s brain development and emotional IQ skills influence his or her relationships with others? • Explain why caregivers should establish interactional synchrony with children. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • What does it mean for a child to be securely attached? Insecurely attached? Why is it important for caregivers to establish secure relationships with the infants and toddlers in their care? • What role does having and enforcing limits have on the development of healthy self-esteem? Why? • Provide and explain an example of a teacher facilitating the development of prosocial skills in a toddler. ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Explain three special rights very young children might have in relationship to emotional and social development. • What is your role as an professional educator regarding children with special rights? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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