Chapter 3
Birth to Thirty-six Months: Social
and Emotional Developmental
Patterns
©2011 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reser...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Evolution of Feelings
– Infants experience and express the full range
of human emotion...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Erikson’s Psychosocial theory
• Eight crises or stages from infancy through
old age, t...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Mahler’s Bonding and Separation-
Individuation Theory
• Personality development, secur...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Temperament
• All children are born with particular
temperaments.
• A growing body of ...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Emotional Intelligence
• Goleman defined five domains that are learned
early in life a...
Patterns of Emotional Development
• Self-Esteem
• It is important that children think they are
worthy people.
• Coopersmit...
Patterns of Social
Development
• Relationship Development
• When the caregiver respects the baby’s
body, the baby feels se...
Patterns of Social
Development
• The Importance of Attachment
• Most research on caregiver-child relationships
has examine...
Patterns of Social
Development
• The Importance of Attachment (continued)
• The primary caregiver has two main
responsibil...
Patterns of Social
Development
• Locus of Control Development: Self-Control
and Self-Responsibility
• Two domains of emoti...
Patterns of Social
Development
• Prosocial behaviors
• Adults who provide feedback about
appropriate, helpful behaviors,
e...
Children with Special Rights
• Areas of special rights in regards to emotional
and social development:
– Children with Aut...
Spotlight on Research
• Father-child interactions and developmental outcomes
– Researchers have shifted their focus to inc...
Checkpoint Discussion
Questions
• How can you apply Margaret Mahler’s separation-
individuation substages to your work wit...
Checkpoint Discussion
Questions
• What does it mean for a child to be securely
attached? Insecurely attached? Why is it im...
Checkpoint Discussion
Questions
• Explain three special rights very young
children might have in relationship to
emotional...
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Infants Toddlers and Twos Chapter 3 (7th)

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Infants Toddlers and Twos Chapter 3 (7th)

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Birth to Thirty-six Months: Social and Emotional Developmental Patterns ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Patterns of Emotional Development • Evolution of Feelings – Infants experience and express the full range of human emotion from ecstasy to deep sorrow. – Infants and toddlers are especially vulnerable to painful experiences because of their lack of defenses. – Infants are limited in their ability to understand the impact of their behaviors on others. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Patterns of Emotional Development • Erikson’s Psychosocial theory • Eight crises or stages from infancy through old age, the first three are extremely important in the development of infants and toddlers: – Basic trust versus mistrust – Autonomy versus shame and doubt – Initiative versus guilt ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Patterns of Emotional Development • Mahler’s Bonding and Separation- Individuation Theory • Personality development, security, trust, and self-concept are all related to the attachment between infant and caregivers and how separation-individuation from caregivers is conducted and experienced by the child: – Separation-Individuation ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Patterns of Emotional Development • Temperament • All children are born with particular temperaments. • A growing body of research strongly suggests that child-rearing practices and other environmental factors can dramatically influence temperament during the first three years. • Nine behavioral categories of Temperament (Chess, Thomas, and Birch) ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Patterns of Emotional Development • Emotional Intelligence • Goleman defined five domains that are learned early in life and are necessary for high emotional intelligence and healthy identity development: – Knowing one’s emotions – Managing emotions – Motivating oneself – Recognizing emotions in others – Handling relationships ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Patterns of Emotional Development • Self-Esteem • It is important that children think they are worthy people. • Coopersmith’s three conditions for fostering self-esteem: – Acceptance – Limits – Respect ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Patterns of Social Development • Relationship Development • When the caregiver respects the baby’s body, the baby feels secure and loved. • When the caregiver respects the baby’s feelings and provides a positive emotional connection, the baby feels secure. • The skill of handling relationships requires that the caregiver manage her own emotions, demonstrate sensitivity to the child’s feelings, and communicate in a way that creates interactional synchrony. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Patterns of Social Development • The Importance of Attachment • Most research on caregiver-child relationships has examined infants with their parents. The findings from this research apply equally well to infant-caregiver relationships. • When caregivers learn the child’s needs, schedules, likes and dislikes, and temperament and respond to the child’s preferences, they teach infants that they are an important person. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Patterns of Social Development • The Importance of Attachment (continued) • The primary caregiver has two main responsibilities: – (1) to establish a special attachment with the child and – (2) to gather, coordinate, and share information about the child with other caregivers and the family. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Patterns of Social Development • Locus of Control Development: Self-Control and Self-Responsibility • Two domains of emotional intelligence are self- motivation and self-control, and good self-esteem requires self-responsibility. • Therefore, understanding development of a healthy internal locus of control is essential for caregivers of young children. • Development of an internal locus of control requires that caregivers respect the right of young children to make many choices within their environment, including choosing their behavior. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Patterns of Social Development • Prosocial behaviors • Adults who provide feedback about appropriate, helpful behaviors, emphasizing the impact of the child’s actions on another person, tend to be associated with children who engage in more prosocial behavior. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Children with Special Rights • Areas of special rights in regards to emotional and social development: – Children with Autism – Attachment Disorder – Mental Health Disorders – Children with Multiple Disabilities – Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAS/FAE). – Environmentally-Promoted Problems for Infants and Toddlers ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Spotlight on Research • Father-child interactions and developmental outcomes – Researchers have shifted their focus to include the important and differential roles that fathers play in developmental outcomes. – Fathers seem to provide an important context as children are learning to regulate their emotions. – Various aspects of father involvement were associated with greater babbling and exploring objects with a purpose as well as a lower likelihood of infant cognitive delay, and with complex symbol use and symbolic play. – Educators need to create policies and engage in practices that actively involve fathers in the care and education of their infants and toddlers. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • How can you apply Margaret Mahler’s separation- individuation substages to your work with very young children? • What factors influence how teachers use the concept of goodness-of-fit with children in their care? Why is it important to realize this concept with each child? • How does a child’s emotional IQ influence her relationships with others? • Explain why caregivers should establish interactional synchrony with children. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • What does it mean for a child to be securely attached? Insecurely attached? Why is it important for caregivers to establish secure relationships with the infants and toddlers in their care? • What are the pros and cons of a child developing an internal locus of control? An external locus of control? • Provide and explain an example of a teacher facilitating the development of prosocial skills in a toddler. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Explain three special rights very young children might have in relationship to emotional and social development. • What is your role as an education professional regarding children with special rights? ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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