Swim ppt ch15


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Swim ppt ch15

  1. 1. Chapter 15 The Child from Twenty-Four to Thirty Months of Age ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Materials and Activities • Materials should provide for riding, climbing, jumping, kicking, and throwing • Toddler finger, hand, and wrist movements, including grasping and releasing, now coordinate with vision • Toddlers are take pleasure in the process of manipulating objects and materials • Toddlers begin to look a situations from the viewpoint of others • Activities help toddlers to construct knowledge • Materials may be homemade or commercially made ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Physical Development • The two-year-old can stand, bend, walk, run, jump, kick and throw with more accuracy • There may be cultural differences in motor skill aquisition • Their eye-hand coordination is more accurate, so they can reach and grasp objects, but they still have difficulty using hands and fingers independently • Two year olds show independence in eating and toilet learning ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum— Physical Development • Provide safe areas for climbing and jumping • Participate in movement games and songs • Create a feely box to explore textures • Provide materials to take apart, twist, put together • Use mealtime and toothbrushing as fine motor learning time • Develop toilet learning plan with family when child begins to show interest ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Cognitive and Language Development • Cognitive Development – Many children between 24 and 30 months are entering Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development – Children are constructing and organizing knowledge about the world – Drawings may begin to be representative – Children at this age are active explorers and problem solvers ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Cognitive Development • Allow children to create own classifications • Use objects to identify more • Extend children’s labels of objects • Use quantity words with objects and activities • Use spatial-position words with activities • Label actions in terms of time ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Cognitive and Language Development • Language Development: – Toddler vocabulary may include as many as 200 to 300 words – Toddlers construct sentences, using syntax – Toddlers from new words, using plurals and past tense – Reading books provides language patterns – Books assist with problem solving – Toddlers observe environmental print ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Language Development • Extend and elaborate on toddler sentences • Identify and label own and child’s actions • Read aloud. Encourage children to tell the story when they have books with pictures • Use expression when talking • Engage in conversations with children • Provide opportunities to write on an easel or chalkboard • Write child’s name, labels, and notes to the child ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Emotional Development • Toddlers are becoming more independent while simultaneously recognizing their need for help • Toddlers do not use emotional expressions or reactions to manipulate others, but for coping with feelings • Children who are given sufficient opportunities to explore, use their senses, be physically active, use expressive materials, and develop language skills may often—through the very nature of these activities—be destructive, messy, noisy, impudent, and defiant • Stress in toddlers affects brain development involved with emotional regulation and problem solving ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Emotional Development • Provide experiences which appropriately challenge children • Give positive feedback • Be sensitive to fears and frustrations • Accept emotions as real and provide comfort and coping strategies • Accept the child’s feelings as honest rather than manipulative ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Social Development • Twenty-four-month-olds enjoy the company of other children; they are beginning to interact while playing • Toddlers still have difficulty sharing • Symbolic play helps toddlers discover who they are • When toddlers are helped with tasks, they learn to help others ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum-- Social Development • Allow child to accomplish as many tasks as possible by self • Show feelings and appropriate actions with feelings. Verbalize feelings of others • Engage the toddlers in conversations as they enjoy parallel play • Provide feedback when a child shares • Provide opportunities for purposeful helping ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Spotlight on Research • Adult Depression and Infant Cognitive Development – When adults are attuned to infants, the infants have better socio-emotional developmental outcomes – In one study of premature infants, maternal depression impacted the children’s cognitive development – Research results on paternal depression are somewhat mixed – Teachers must be supportive of all families and children in their care ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Explain why an early childhood educator should be concerned if a parent of a toddler in his or her care appears to be depressed. How might that impact the development of the whole child? • Imagine that a colleague questions why you read to toddlers in your family child care every day. What would you say and why? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • List two developing social accomplishments of a child 24 to 30 months old. • Describe a situation in which the child is asserting independence. How should the teacher respond to the child’s actions? ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.