Structural Racialization: A Lens for Understanding How Opportunity is Racialized


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Structural Racialization: A Lens for Understanding How Opportunity is Racialized

  1. 1. STRUCTURAL RACIALIZATION: A LENS FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW OPPORTUNITY IS RACIALIZEDjohn a. powellDirector, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of LawJuly 9-11, 2009ISAIAH
  2. 2. Today’s Conversation  Different types of racism  Individual  Institutional  Structural racialization  Why use a structural racialization analysis?  Using structural racialization analysis to promote change2
  3. 3. Key Takeaways  Structural racialization addresses inter-institutional arrangements and interactions. It shows how the joint operation of institutions can produce racialized outcomes.  Once we are able to see the multiple, intersecting, and often mutually reinforcing disadvantages of structural racialization, we develop more effective responses.  A structural racialization analysis allows us to recognize that people are situated differently inside of existing structures.3
  4. 4. Types of RacismIndividualInstitutionalStructural Racialization
  5. 5. Individual Racism  Discrimination Model  Victim/perpetrator  Prejudice (bad actor/ bad apple)  Intent (purpose or motive) Institutional Racism  Recognized that racism need not be individualist or intentional.  Institutional and cultural practices can perpetuate race inequality without relying on racist actors.  Jim Crow5
  6. 6. Attribution of Disparities  Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples”  Defective culture  Individual faults  Personal Racism  Overlooks policies and arrangements: “diseased tree”  Structures  Institutions  Cumulative causation6
  7. 7. The Arrangement of Structures  How we arrange structures matters  The order of the structures  The timing of the interaction between them  The relationships that exist between them  We must be aware of how structures are arranged in order to fully understand social phenomena7
  8. 8. Ex: Structural Arrangements and Unemployment  Jobs are distributed through structures.  Most teachers are women.  Most construction workers are men.  When unemployment rates change, we need to be conscious of how people are segregated into economic sectors.  There are racial and gendered outcomes to these structural arrangements.8
  9. 9. The Importance of Institutional Arrangements9
  10. 10. Contrasting Perspectives Traditional Understanding {-} Structural Understanding {+} An independent-isolated- An outcome that results from individual psychological interactivity of institutions & issue actors De jure De facto Static Dynamic Past, if present an anomaly Present Overt Overt and covert Irrational Rational Tautological Non-tautological (multidimensional)10 Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (1997)
  11. 11. Structural Racialization  How race works today: There are still practices, cultural norms and institutional arrangements that help create & maintain (disparate) racialized outcomes  Structural racialization addresses inter-institutional arrangements and interactions.  It refers to the ways in which the joint operation of institutions produce racialized outcomes.  In this analysis, outcomes matter more than intent.11
  12. 12. Term Clarification Why “structural racialization” as opposed to “structural racism?” • When you use the term “racism,” people are inclined to see a specific person -- a racist. • By using the term “racialization,” a racist is not necessary to produce structural outcomes. Instead, institutional interactions generate racialized outcomes.12
  13. 13. Structural Racialization Produces Racialized Outcomes Context: The Dominant Consensus on Race White privilege National values Contemporary culture Current Manifestations: Social and Institutional Dynamics Processes that maintain racial Racialized public policies and hierarchies institutional practices Outcomes: Racial Disparities Racial inequalities in current levels of Capacity for individual and community well-being improvement is undermined Ongoing Racial Inequalities13 Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004
  14. 14. Structural Racialization  Structural racialization accounts for the cumulative effects of institutional arrangements. Causation is interactive between institutions. Lower Educational School Outcomes for Segregation Urban School Districts Increased Neighborhood Flight (Housing) of Affluent Segregation Families from Urban Areas14
  15. 15.  These cows are ill. Why?15
  16. 16. 16Photo source: AP
  17. 17. Mutual Institutional Interaction An analysis of any one area will yield an incomplete Effective understanding. Participation Childcare Employment Housing We must consider how institutions Education Health interact with one another to produce Transportation racialized outcomes.17
  18. 18. Structural Racialization Analysis Applied Exclusionary Subsidized Housing Zoning Policies Housing Challenges A Housing Market Discriminatory That Does Not Serve And Unfair Lending the Population Racial Steering And Discrimination18
  19. 19. Application of SR Model: Thompson v. HUD In 1995, six families living in Baltimore public housing filed suit on behalf of 14,000 other low-income families. In 2005, a federal court ruled that HUD had violated Title VIII of the Fair Housing Act by failing to affirmatively further fair housing.  HUD had effectively restricted low-income minority families to segregated neighborhoods in the central city.  During the 1990s, 89% of public housing units developed with HUD’s support in the Baltimore Region were in Baltimore City.  The majority – more than 67%– of the City’s Section 8 voucher holders live in census tracts that are 70% - 100% Black.
  20. 20. Why Use a Structural Racialization Analysis?What benefits do we gain from using this analysis?What do we lose when we fail to embrace this analysis?
  21. 21. SR Analysis: Uncovers Complexities  We understand that racism produces negative outcomes.  When we have proof of racism, this can clearly lead to a call for action to combat it.  But what about when there are disparities and the source(s) of the racism is/are unclear?  Structural racialization often operates in this more stealth manner.  The call for social action against the racism often is less urgent.22
  22. 22. SR Analysis: Provides Context  A structural analysis is deeply relational and timebound.  Example: the subprime crisis. “People got bad loans.”  A surface view solution: “Stop giving people bad loans.”  Contextualized view (SR analysis) solution: Fix the dual credit market, stop spatial segregation/redlining, work toward stable home-equity building, etc.23
  23. 23. Systems Theory Highlights Relationships  It is critical in systems thinking and structural racialization to realize that people are situated differently inside of existing structures.24 Source: Barbara Reskin.
  24. 24. Using A Structural Racialization Analysis to Produce Change  When we use race properly, we can show how structural dynamics and failings hurt everyone – linked fate  Begin to analyze how housing, education, employment, transportation, health care, and other systems interact to yield racialized outcomes for different groups.  Structural racialization as an analytical tool is a particular example of a systems approach.25
  25. 25. “We need to look at the individual in terms ofmany different relationships tohim/herself, many things in relationship tohis/her community and to the largercommunity, not just in isolation. If we take thisapproach seriously, it affects how we see theworld, how we experience ourselves, how we doour work, and helps move us to a truly inclusiveparadigm.” ~john a. powell 26
  26. 26. Eliminating Structural Racialization  A top-down approach to eliminating structural racialization will not work.  Community members must be involved and given a voice to help shape a new paradigm.  Hence, coalition and community building are key elements in any strategy for challenging structural racialization.27
  27. 27. A Transformative Agenda  Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in three areas:  Talking about race: Understanding how language and messages shape reality and the perception of reality  Thinking about race: Understanding how framing and priming impact information processing in both the explicit and the implicit mind  Linking these understandings to the way that we act on race and how we arrange our institutions and policies28
  28. 28. Questions or Comments? For More Information, Visit Us Online: www.KirwanInstitute.org29
  29. 29. APPENDIXThe Pathway to OpportunityMinnesota data
  30. 30. Section 2Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, andLife Outcomes “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks
  31. 31. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods& Access to Opportunity  Your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success  High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations  Urban, rural, suburban  People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities
  32. 32. Factors Contributing to ResidentialSegregation and Isolation De facto segregation and opportunity isolation  Exclusionary zoning  Subtle forms of housing discrimination Racial steering, editorializing  Fragmented school districts and court decisions  Economic development policy, infrastructure policy and subsidized housing policy  Continued exurban sprawl and white flight  Reverse redlining Buy here pay here, rent to own, payday lending, subprime mortgage loans
  33. 33. Spatial Segregation Structural racialization involves a series of exclusions, often anchored in (and perpetuating) spatial segregation. Historically marginalized people of color and the very poor have been spatially isolated from economic, political, educational and technological power via reservations, Jim Crow, Appalachian mountains, ghettos, barrios, and the culture of incarceration.
  34. 34. The Cumulative Impacts of Spatial, Racial and Opportunity Segregation Segregation impacts a number of life-opportunities Impacts on Health School Segregation Impacts on Educational Achievement Exposure to crime; arrest Transportation limitations and other inequitable public services Neighborhood Job segregation Segregation Racial stigma, other psychological impacts Impacts on community power and individual assetsAdapted from figure by Barbara Reskin at:
  35. 35. Education - Minnesota Minnesota students measuring proficient or above on the 11th grade math test in 2008 Race/Ethnicity Percent White 38% Asian/Pacific Islander 31% Latino 14% American Indian 11% African American 8%36
  36. 36. Education - Minnesota “Minnesota has the 2nd largest gap in the nation between African- American and white students on the 4th grade reading score.”37
  37. 37. Education – Minnesota & St. Cloud 2006-07 High School Graduation Rates in Minnesota Latinos 41% African American 41% American Indian 41% Asian American 66% White 80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%  In the St. Cloud region, 93% of white students graduated in the 2004-05 school year, only 63% of black students graduated.38
  38. 38. Health – Low Birthweights39
  39. 39. Health – Infant Mortality 40
  40. 40. Health – Uninsured 41
  41. 41. Income Reducing%20Disparity%20%20Enhancing%20Safety.pdf
  42. 42. Minnesota: Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity; MN data (2006-2007), U.S. data (2007) MN: # MN: % US: # US: % White 392,970 8.9% 22,631,070 11.5% Black 88,740 41.2% 11,676,830 32.2% Hispanic 65,110 28.0% 13,053,740 28.4% Other 52,710 17.4% 3,847,620 19.4% Total 599,530 11.6% 51,209,260 17.2% Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured estimates based on the Census Bureaus March 2007 and 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS: Annual Social and Economic Supplements).43
  43. 43. State Imprisonment Rates  Minnesota (2005):  Black: 1,973  White 212  This equates to a Black/White ratio of 9.14.  Minnesotas Black-to-White imprisonment ratio is the twelfth highest in the nation.  The national average Black/White ratio is 7.09.44
  44. 44. Non-White Overrepresentation in Prisons & Jails in Minnesota 89.4% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 54.8% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 28.4% 30.0% 20.0% 8.7% 7.6% 10.0% 3.5% 2.9% 1.1% 0.0% Blacks Latinos Native Whites Americans Total Population Incarcerated Population45; Data source: 2000 U.S. Census
  45. 45. Subprime Loans- Home Purchase“Communities in Crisis: Race and Mortgage Lending in the Twin Cities.” Institute on Race and Poverty. Feb. 2009 46
  46. 46. Subprime Loans- Refinance“Communities in Crisis: Race and Mortgage Lending in the Twin Cities.” Institute on Race and Poverty. Feb. 2009 47
  47. 47. Relationship Between Race & Foreclosures“Communities in Crisis: Race and Mortgage Lending in the Twin Cities.” Institute on Race and Poverty. Feb. 2009 48
  48. 48. Subprime Lending & Foreclosures“Communities in Crisis: Race and Mortgage Lending in the Twin Cities.” Institute on Race and Poverty. Feb. 2009 49
  49. 49. Implications of Opportunity Isolation Individual  Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development  Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime  Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks Community/Economy  High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges  Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation  Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects
  50. 50. Opening Pathways to Opportunity What happens when we affirmatively connect people to opportunity?  After implementing economically diverse magnets schools in Wake County, NC, African American student test scores doubled  Children in public housing who moved to the suburbs as part of Chicago’s Gautreaux program were twice as likely to attend college (in comparison to their urban peers) (Rosenbaum)  Despite the flaws in the implementation of MTO, many participants experienced substantial psychological benefits  Moving to opportunity for boys resulted in a 25% decline in depressive/anxiety or dependency problems (2005)