Equal Opportunity and Access to Higher Education in Ohio
Seminar for Social Immersion Project Honors & Scholars Center Hale Center, Ohio State University – January 24th 2011Instructor: Jason ReeceSenior Researcher, Opportunity Communities ProgramKirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity, Moritz College of Law33 West 11th Ave, Room 204; E-mail: Reece.email@example.com
Access to higher education Unequal access to higher education as a form of inequity Understanding the impacts of inequity on our state and society How do we understand disparate outcomes in education in Ohio? What drives it? What can we do to improve it?
Multidisciplinary applied research institute Our mission is to expand opportunity for all, especially for our most marginalized communities Founded in 2003 by john powell (executive director) Opportunity Communities Program ▪ Opening pathways to opportunity for marginalized communities through investments in people, places and supporting linkages ▪ Disrupting systems of disadvantage ▪ Opportunity mapping, Regional Equity, Neighborhood Revitalization, Opportunity Based Housing 3
About me…. About you…. What’s your background? What inspired you to participate in this program? Are there particular questions or topics you would like me to address?
What do you think? Why Should we about access to higher education in Ohio, or in our nation? Is their “fair” access to higher education in Ohio?
For Ohio 9th graders Less than 3 in 4 will graduate High School Less than 2 out of 3 of those Source: Data and information graduates will go to college derived from presentation by Only 1 in 2 of those will Nancy Nestor Baker, available on-line at: graduate in 6 years http://principalsoffice.osu.edu/f iles/zone.8.08.knowledge.php Resulting in only 1 in 5 earning a bachelors degree
For new jobs in our economy About 7 in 10 new jobs require post secondary education Only 1 in 10 are accessible for those with less than a high school diploma The recession has made these conditions worse (more competition)
Systemic barriers to higher education and disparate educational outcomes are a sign of inequity in Ohio What is inequity? ▪ Disparities between groups (systematic group level disparities) ▪ Not having fairness or treating all groups fairly, barriers blocking access to opportunity for some groups Conversely, providing greater access to higher education is an example of promoting greater equity in the state
Who is impacted? Other potential dimensions to Class inequity Race/Ethnicity • Disparate impact of policies Gender • Often institutional and/or Language structural in nature Place/Geography • Durable inequality Disability • Cumulative disadvantage Sexual Orientation • Denial of opportunity Age • Groups left out of the democratic Other???? process • Limited political voice Intersectionality • Limited agency Interaction of various factors on multiple scales ▪ For more information review the writings of Kimberle Krenshaw
Is their inequity in the US? Yes, and it is growing in many ways How does this manifest? In various ways for various populations Example: ▪ Disparity: gaps in outcomes for whole group population How do we explain this? Personal or cultural characteristics, institutional or structural causes Culture of poverty, cumulative disadvantage, The underclass
Although racial attitudes are improving steadily, racial disparities persist on every level. Income, poverty, employment, health, crime, incarceration, education, assets, housing, among others National Racial Disparities 2003 National Racial Disparities 200380.0% $100,000 71.5% $88,00070.0% $90,000 47.3% $80,00060.0% $70,00050.0% 46.3% $60,00040.0% 34.8% $46,310 $50,00030.0% 24.7% 23.9% 21.9% $40,000 $29,772 $34,75120.0% 16.8% $30,000 10.1%10.0% $20,000 $6,000 $7,9000.0% $10,000 $- Poverty Rate College Graduation Homeownership Rate Rate Median HH Income Median HH Net Worth White African American Hispanic White African American Hispanic 18
How do we understand these disparities if they are not explained by personal discrimination or explicit laws and policies? When do disparities matter? Three sources: Biology: Much less prevalent today, but was a common explanation during the 19th and early 20th centuries; theories of racial, ethnic, and gender inferiority. Individuals & Culture: Idea that individuals alone can (and should) rise above their conditions of poverty, and the idea of a defective “culture of poverty”. Structures & Institutions: States that even within neutral arrangements and without discriminatory actors, disparities can still exist. 21
Physical Social Cultural Outcomes & BehaviorsThese structures interact in ways that produce racialized outcomes for different groups, but alsoin ways that influence identity and culture
Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes A system of disadvantage Many manifestations ▪ Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities Social determinants of race: Where you live dictates access to opportunity structures and also determines racial norms 24
• One variable can explain why differential outcomes.…to a multi-dimensional understanding…. • Structural Inequality – Example: a Bird in a cage. Examining one bar cannot explain why a bird cannot fly. But multiple bars, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird.
Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/ 26
Some people ride the “Up” Others have to run up escalator to reach the “Down” escalator to opportunity get there 27
Educational Opportunity Map for Ohio: Ohio’s Geography of Educational OpportunityDirect Education IndicatorsSchool poverty rateAverage teaching experiencePercent reading proficiency - 11th gradePercent writing proficiency - 11th gradePercent math proficiency - 11th gradeGraduation rate 2004-2005Percent of teachers with Bachelors degreePercent of teachers with Masters degreeTotal hardware/software (computer expenditure)Access to librariesPercent associates degree or higherOther Neighborhood IndicatorsPercent povertyPercent unemployedAccess to prenatal careTotal crime indicatorPercent of houses owner-occupiedPercent of houses vacantHousing median valueChild poverty rateMedian household income
We are all caught up in an inescapable network ofmutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.Whatever effects one directly effects all indirectly. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Individual Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks Community/Economy High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects 32
Richard Florida states in Flight of the Creative Class: “Rising inequality is a deadweight drag on our economic competitiveness…The basic formula is simple: Those companies, regions and countries that reduce waste and effectively harness their productive assets have a huge advantage in the Darwinian competition that powers creative capitalism.” Rondinelli, Johnson and Kasarda argue that the marginalization found in core urban communities and declining geographic/social mobility threaten to undermine hopes of adjusting economic development to the global economy. “…the expanding underclass that is concentrated in the cores of U.S. cities is ill prepared educationally and psychologically for productive work and technological change…”
The State’s economic future is dependent on its most plentiful natural resource, human capacity and innovation Without addressing the various inequities facing the state, our future is compromised 34
Many solutions…but resources and public will to implement them are the primary barriers to resolving Our Approach Investing in People, Places and Linkages ▪ Bringing opportunity to distressed communities, bridging opportunities to those who are disconnected from our educational resources ▪ Providing holistic support to Ohio’s students and communities ▪ Engaging disadvantaged communities and families What would you do? What is your solution?
Reece.firstname.lastname@example.org 33 West 11th Ave, Room 204 A The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity On-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org www.race-talk.org 37