Equal Opportunity and Access to Higher Education in Ohio


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Equal Opportunity and Access to Higher Education in Ohio

  1. 1. Seminar for Social Immersion Project Honors & Scholars Center Hale Center, Ohio State University – January 24th 2011Instructor: Jason ReeceSenior Researcher, Opportunity Communities ProgramKirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity, Moritz College of Law33 West 11th Ave, Room 204; E-mail: Reece.35@osu.edu
  2. 2.  Access to higher education  Unequal access to higher education as a form of inequity  Understanding the impacts of inequity on our state and society How do we understand disparate outcomes in education in Ohio?  What drives it?  What can we do to improve it?
  3. 3.  Multidisciplinary applied research institute  Our mission is to expand opportunity for all, especially for our most marginalized communities Founded in 2003 by john powell (executive director)  Opportunity Communities Program ▪ Opening pathways to opportunity for marginalized communities through investments in people, places and supporting linkages ▪ Disrupting systems of disadvantage ▪ Opportunity mapping, Regional Equity, Neighborhood Revitalization, Opportunity Based Housing 3
  4. 4.  About me…. About you….  What’s your background?  What inspired you to participate in this program?  Are there particular questions or topics you would like me to address?
  5. 5. A Form of Inequity in Ohio
  6. 6.  What do you think?  Why Should we about access to higher education in Ohio, or in our nation?  Is their “fair” access to higher education in Ohio?
  7. 7.  For Ohio 9th graders  Less than 3 in 4 will graduate High School  Less than 2 out of 3 of those Source: Data and information graduates will go to college derived from presentation by  Only 1 in 2 of those will Nancy Nestor Baker, available on-line at: graduate in 6 years http://principalsoffice.osu.edu/f iles/zone.8.08.knowledge.php  Resulting in only 1 in 5 earning a bachelors degree
  8. 8.  For new jobs in our economy  About 7 in 10 new jobs require post secondary education  Only 1 in 10 are accessible for those with less than a high school diploma  The recession has made these conditions worse (more competition)
  9. 9.  Systemic barriers to higher education and disparate educational outcomes are a sign of inequity in Ohio  What is inequity? ▪ Disparities between groups (systematic group level disparities) ▪ Not having fairness or treating all groups fairly, barriers blocking access to opportunity for some groups Conversely, providing greater access to higher education is an example of promoting greater equity in the state
  10. 10. Understanding Inequity
  11. 11.  Who is impacted?  Other potential dimensions to  Class inequity  Race/Ethnicity • Disparate impact of policies  Gender • Often institutional and/or  Language structural in nature  Place/Geography • Durable inequality  Disability • Cumulative disadvantage  Sexual Orientation • Denial of opportunity  Age • Groups left out of the democratic  Other???? process • Limited political voice Intersectionality • Limited agency  Interaction of various factors on multiple scales ▪ For more information review the writings of Kimberle Krenshaw
  12. 12.  Is their inequity in the US?  Yes, and it is growing in many ways How does this manifest?  In various ways for various populations  Example: ▪ Disparity: gaps in outcomes for whole group population How do we explain this?  Personal or cultural characteristics, institutional or structural causes  Culture of poverty, cumulative disadvantage, The underclass
  13. 13.  Although racial attitudes are improving steadily, racial disparities persist on every level.  Income, poverty, employment, health, crime, incarceration, education, assets, housing, among others National Racial Disparities 2003 National Racial Disparities 200380.0% $100,000 71.5% $88,00070.0% $90,000 47.3% $80,00060.0% $70,00050.0% 46.3% $60,00040.0% 34.8% $46,310 $50,00030.0% 24.7% 23.9% 21.9% $40,000 $29,772 $34,75120.0% 16.8% $30,000 10.1%10.0% $20,000 $6,000 $7,9000.0% $10,000 $- Poverty Rate College Graduation Homeownership Rate Rate Median HH Income Median HH Net Worth White African American Hispanic White African American Hispanic 18
  14. 14.  How do we understand these disparities if they are not explained by personal discrimination or explicit laws and policies? When do disparities matter? Three sources:  Biology: Much less prevalent today, but was a common explanation during the 19th and early 20th centuries; theories of racial, ethnic, and gender inferiority.  Individuals & Culture: Idea that individuals alone can (and should) rise above their conditions of poverty, and the idea of a defective “culture of poverty”.  Structures & Institutions: States that even within neutral arrangements and without discriminatory actors, disparities can still exist. 21
  15. 15. 22
  16. 16. Physical Social Cultural Outcomes & BehaviorsThese structures interact in ways that produce racialized outcomes for different groups, but alsoin ways that influence identity and culture
  17. 17.  Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations ▪ Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities  Social determinants of race: Where you live dictates access to opportunity structures and also determines racial norms 24
  18. 18. • One variable can explain why differential outcomes.…to a multi-dimensional understanding…. • Structural Inequality – Example: a Bird in a cage. Examining one bar cannot explain why a bird cannot fly. But multiple bars, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird.
  19. 19. Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/ 26
  20. 20. Some people ride the “Up” Others have to run up escalator to reach the “Down” escalator to opportunity get there 27
  21. 21. Educational Opportunity Map for Ohio: Ohio’s Geography of Educational OpportunityDirect Education IndicatorsSchool poverty rateAverage teaching experiencePercent reading proficiency - 11th gradePercent writing proficiency - 11th gradePercent math proficiency - 11th gradeGraduation rate 2004-2005Percent of teachers with Bachelors degreePercent of teachers with Masters degreeTotal hardware/software (computer expenditure)Access to librariesPercent associates degree or higherOther Neighborhood IndicatorsPercent povertyPercent unemployedAccess to prenatal careTotal crime indicatorPercent of houses owner-occupiedPercent of houses vacantHousing median valueChild poverty rateMedian household income
  23. 23. Impacts of Inequity
  24. 24. We are all caught up in an inescapable network ofmutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.Whatever effects one directly effects all indirectly. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  25. 25.  Individual  Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development  Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime  Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks Community/Economy  High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges  Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation  Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects 32
  26. 26.  Richard Florida states in Flight of the Creative Class:  “Rising inequality is a deadweight drag on our economic competitiveness…The basic formula is simple: Those companies, regions and countries that reduce waste and effectively harness their productive assets have a huge advantage in the Darwinian competition that powers creative capitalism.” Rondinelli, Johnson and Kasarda argue that the marginalization found in core urban communities and declining geographic/social mobility threaten to undermine hopes of adjusting economic development to the global economy.  “…the expanding underclass that is concentrated in the cores of U.S. cities is ill prepared educationally and psychologically for productive work and technological change…”
  27. 27.  The State’s economic future is dependent on its most plentiful natural resource, human capacity and innovation Without addressing the various inequities facing the state, our future is compromised 34
  28. 28. Building Greater Equity in Education
  29. 29.  Many solutions…but resources and public will to implement them are the primary barriers to resolving Our Approach  Investing in People, Places and Linkages ▪ Bringing opportunity to distressed communities, bridging opportunities to those who are disconnected from our educational resources ▪ Providing holistic support to Ohio’s students and communities ▪ Engaging disadvantaged communities and families  What would you do? What is your solution?
  30. 30.  Reece.35@osu.edu  33 West 11th Ave, Room 204 A  The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity On-line at:  www.kirwaninstitute.org  www.race-talk.org 37