Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Groups and Social Movements

2,345 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Groups and Social Movements

  1. 1. The Social Psychology of Groups
  2. 2. Groups Groups can be any interaction involving more than one person  Two friends are a group  Families are a group  Communities are a group  Community organizations form when a group of people come together to act in a shared interest or common cause People are considered a group if they themselves are bound to one another in some way Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  3. 3. Group Processes Perspective Social Psychologists  study group behavior  Have different theories and perspectives of how to approach the study of group behavior  Group Procecesses is one of those perspectives The Group Processes perspectives explores how basic social processes operate in group contexts  Sociologists study the processes that occur in groups  Psychologists are interested in the groups themselves Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  4. 4. Studying Processes Certain basic social processes tend to play out in group contexts, in both small and large groups The main processes studied in the group processes perspective include:  Power  Status  Justice  Legitimacy Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  5. 5. Power According to Max Weber, power is the ability to control people, even over their objections Power exists in the context of our relationships with others  To have power, there must be someone to have power over  The types of groups in which power processes operate vary in size Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  6. 6. Power Power does not come from the nature of the individual, but rather their position in a social hierarchy  Although personal character likely plays a large role in one attaining a position of power, the power emanates from the position itself  Examples include the President, business executives, and religious leaders The power found in social positions originates in social agreements pertaining to the position itself  Formal rules  Social norms Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  7. 7. Power In most group contexts the sources of power are more subtle  Examples include power relationships in marriages and friendship groups Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  8. 8. Status Status is a person‘s standing in a group or society based on prestige and respect Status only exists in relation to others Status involves social comparisons in groups Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  9. 9. Status Research consistently supports the idea that, when groups get together to complete tasks, status hierarchies form  Those who are higher in the status hierarchy tend to talk more and get more credit for their contributions Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  10. 10. Justice Justice is a group process that involves social comparisons of fairness or equity  For example, if someone feels they are unfairly paid, it is based on a comparison to others in a group (whether it be a single department, company, or society as a whole)  Justice perceptions are perceptions that members of a group are not being treated fairly Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  11. 11. Justice Research has found that our justice perceptions tend to have a self-serving bias For example, in justice perceptions pertaining to wages:  We compare ourselves to similar others, however we tend to seek comparisons that will give the highest value to the amount we think we should earn  We are more likely to perceive an injustice if we feel underpaid than if we feel overpaid  Therefore, we tend to apply different criteria to what is considered ‗fair‘ compensation  Equal pay distribution  Equitable pay distribution Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  12. 12. Legitimacy The sense that an existing social arrangement is the way that things should be Social arrangements that are viewed as illegitimate can result in a number of undermining social outcomes  Revolutions or political coups  Protests  Work stoppages or ‗slow downs‘  Other forms of resistance Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  13. 13. Group Structures The effect of a group on its members depends, in part, on how the group is configured  Size  Function  Goals  Et cetera
  14. 14. Group Size Small groups are defined as groups of two or more individuals, whose members are able to engage in direct, face-to-face interactions  Usually between 2 and 20 people  It is generally difficult for personal relationships to develop in groups of more than 20  Larger groups are often ―broken up‖ into smaller groups to facilitate interpersonal relationships Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  15. 15. Dyads and Triads Dyads Groups of two people Limited to a single relationship Triads Groups of three people The third person creates two additional relationships, compared to a dyad Adding a person to a group increases the number of relationships and decreases intimacy levels in the group The effects of group size on group members‘ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors occur above and beyond the specific individuals involved in the group Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  16. 16. Does the Size of a Group Matter? Dyad Triad Larger groups-more intimate – share - May have one -less intimatedeepest secrets dominant member Group can survive if-Requires full attention - One person can some members leaveand cooperation of both temporarily withdraw -Less intense & more-Intense & unstable -more stable than Dyads stable (because one(because if one member member of the groupof the group leaves, the may leave and the groupgroup will cease to exist) will continue to exist)
  17. 17. Types of Groups Social psychologists distinguish between three broad types of groups, which are configured in different ways and serve different purposes  Primary groups  Secondary groups  Reference groups Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  18. 18. Primary Groups friends, family, military units, or peer groups  People we are close to and interact with regularly  Social groups that have face-to-face contact and emotional ties among their members  Tend to serve more emotional needs
  19. 19. CommunitySecondary groups organizatio ns  People we affiliate with to achieve similar goals or needs  Co-workers or teammates  Tend to serve more instrumental needs
  20. 20. Reference groups  People we do not necessarily know personally, but look to as a source of standards and identity  provide standards for judging our attitudes or behaviors  There can be some overlap between Reference groups and primary or secondary groups Rohall, David E., Milkie, Melissa A., and Lucas, Jeffrey W. (2010). Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (2nd Ed.)
  21. 21. Group traits Group structure - In addition to size, groups also vary based on their function, goals, etc. They can also vary based on  How long the group remains together  The requirements of membership in the group  You have specific ―requirements‖ for selecting your friends  Going to the store makes you part of the group of people in the store. The only requirement is being there at the same time.  The norms that exist in the group  Norms are the rules that govern society‘s behaviors
  22. 22. Group vs. Collective Behavior Collective behavior refers to the action or behavior of people in groups or crowds
  23. 23. There are 3 Types of Actions Conforming  Following prevailing norms Deviant  behavior that violates the norms of a group Collective Behavior  Neither conforming nor deviant  Norms are absent or unclear or contradict each other
  24. 24. Collective Behavior Characterized by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual It is a broad term and covers a wide range of acts Emerges in ―spontaneous‖ way Henslin, J. (2008). Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach (9th Ed.). Pearson, Boston
  25. 25. Types of Collective Behavior Social Movements Crowds Riots Rumors Panic Fads & Fashions
  26. 26. How is Collective Behaviordifferent from Group Behavior?Collective Behavior Group Behavior Limited & short-term  Remain together social interaction longer No clear social boundaries, anyone  Membership is more can be a member of selective or limited the collective  Eg., groups of friends, colleagues, Generates weak and organizations unconventional norms  Stronger and more
  27. 27. Underlying Causes of Collective Behavior • Collective behavior usually involves the underlying conditions in the larger society. • Strain - occurs when one aspect of society is no longer in balance with other aspects. • Relative Deprivation - a gap between one‘s desired level of need satisfaction and one‘s actual level of need satisfaction. • Grievances - discontent with the existing distribution of resources.
  28. 28. Social Movements
  29. 29. Overview  Social Movements are a type of Collective Behavior Types of Actions  Collective Behavior is a type of Action1. Conforming2. Deviant3. Collective Behavior Collective Behaviors 1. Social Movements 2. Crowds Examples of Social 3. Riots Movements 4. Rumors 1. Labor movement 5. Panic 2. Women‘s movement 6. Fads & 3. Populist movement Fashions 4. Civil rights movement 5. Anti-war movement 6. Welfare rights movement 7. Gay rights movement
  30. 30. Social Movements• Social Movements are a collective activity that expresses a high level of concern about some issues. • People who participate are those who feel strongly enough about the issue to act. • Persons involved engage in a variety of activities; • signing petitions • Boycotts • Marches • Rallies • campaigns
  31. 31. To Change or to Resist Change  People engage in social movements either to bring about change or to resist change.  A civil rights march vs. protesting a nuclear plant in your town
  32. 32. Development of a Social Movement For a movement to appear, people must perceive their discontent as the result of controllable forces external to themselves. Preconditions include:  People must experience strain or deprivation.  People must believe they have a right to satisfy their unmet needs.  People must believe that satisfaction cannot be achieved through established channels.
  33. 33. Development of a Social Movement• Ideology and Framing  As individuals interact, an ideology must emerge that justifies collective activity.  Ideologies are often developed by movement participants as the movement grows.  Once social movement groups have identified and committed to ideological positions, they must articulate and present their ideas to others in order to win support, gain members, and gather resources.
  34. 34. Recruitment The development and continuing existence of any movement depends on recruitment —the process of attracting supporters.  Recruitment depends on three catalysts; ideology, identity, and existing social networks.  Sometimes entire categories of people are recruited all at once (members of a minority group, a religious order, or a work or professional group.) or a Community Organization
  35. 35. Stages of Social Movements A community organization might be part of a ―movement. movement. A community organization might be the start of a movement. You don’t need to know the stages for the examReferences: Graph from Wikipedia on social movements and is based on Blumer, Herbert G. 1969. "Collective Behavior." In Alfred McClung Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology. ThirdEdition. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, pp. 65-121; Mauss, Armand L. 1975. Social Problems as Social Movements. Philadelphia: Lippincott; and Tilly, Charles. 1978. FromMobilization to Revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1978.

×