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Toward a Transformative Dialogue On Race:Understanding the Importance of “Structural Racialization”     Tom Rudd, Senior R...
Presentation OverviewIdentifyingconditions, processes, practices, policies, ideologies, andinteractions that lead to racia...
Individual RacismDefinitions:      “Racism” is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacit...
Implicit Bias Research suggests that most of us are guided by a set of very subtle “symbolic attitudes” that develop over ...
Implicit Bias Drew Westen writes that unconscious attitudes are typically less egalitarian than conscious attitudes (what ...
Colorblind Racism                     Since the civil rights acts of the 1960s, racism is a thing of the past.            ...
Institutional Racism  The institutional racism frame supports the understanding that racism does not  need to be individua...
Structural Racialization                                                  Visualizing Systems TheoryStructural Racializati...
Structural Racialization:An Example Lack of affordable housing in “high-  opportunity” areas restricts African            ...
Thompson v. HUDFiled in 1994 on behalf of a class of African American public housing residents.Plaintiffs claimed that the...
Today’s ChallengeIdentify the past and presentconditions, processes, practices, policies, interactions, andideologies that...
End Notes 1   http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/racism 2   http://freedomkeys.com/ar-racism.htm 3National Crime Vi...
www.kirwaninstitute.org(614) 688-5429                          13
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Toward a Transformative Dialogue On Race: Understanding the Importance of “Structural Racialization

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Toward a Transformative Dialogue On Race: Understanding the Importance of “Structural Racialization

  1. 1. Toward a Transformative Dialogue On Race:Understanding the Importance of “Structural Racialization” Tom Rudd, Senior Researcher Round Table Convening Michael E. Moritz College of Law February 12, 2009
  2. 2. Presentation OverviewIdentifyingconditions, processes, practices, policies, ideologies, andinteractions that lead to racial inequality Individual racial animus Implicit Bias (“symbolic racism”) Colorblind racism Institutional racism Structural RacializationWhat do we mean by “structural racialization” A process by which inter-institutional interactions produce racialized group disparities A lens to perceive these often subtle interactionsThompson v. HUD as an illustration 2
  3. 3. Individual RacismDefinitions: “Racism” is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. 1 “Racism is the lowest, most crudely primitive form of collectivism. It is the notion of ascribing moral, social or political significance to a mans genetic lineage…” “…racism is a quest for the unearned…” 2Despite the continuing prevalence of race-based violence in the U.S., 3 research suggests that racial attitudeshave improved since 1997. For example: Fewer White Americans readily endorse statements that African Americans are less intelligent and hardworking than Whites. Fewer White Americans verbally object to increasing levels of inter-racial mixing in neighborhoods and in marriage partners. 4Because of a history of violence and oppression toward people of color in the U.S., racial injustice is oftenperceived as the product of individual racial animus and bigotry. This view is incomplete.A closer look often reveals that pervasive durable racialized disparities have structural rather than individualcauses. Racialized outcomes do not require racist actors. 3
  4. 4. Implicit Bias Research suggests that most of us are guided by a set of very subtle “symbolic attitudes” that develop over time from our earliest experiences Racial prejudice Liberal/conservative political ideology Gender bias… Negative unconscious attitudes about race are called “implicit bias” or “symbolic racism.” These attitudes operate in our “unconscious” (also called “subconscious”) mind Usually invisible to us Can significantly influence our position on critical issues like affirmative action and school integration 4
  5. 5. Implicit Bias Drew Westen writes that unconscious attitudes are typically less egalitarian than conscious attitudes (what we think we believe about race) and that most White Americans—including many who hold consciously progressive values and attitudes—harbor negative associations toward people of color. 5 When we talk about race, we create an opportunity to examine and challenge our implicit bias and reinforce our conscious beliefs. 5
  6. 6. Colorblind Racism Since the civil rights acts of the 1960s, racism is a thing of the past. There is full equality in the society now that all people have rights under the law. All Americans have an equal opportunity to achieve success—President Obama, Oprah Winfrey, and Tiger Woods are proof … Our cities are segregated not because of structural racialization but because people of color choose to live only with other people of color no matter how negative the environment might be. Colorblind racism weakens support for programs and policies designed to remove racialized barriers to opportunity. “Strategic colorblindness” is the fear among Whites that talking about race will lead to a racist label. 6
  7. 7. Institutional Racism The institutional racism frame supports the understanding that racism does not need to be individualist or intentional to have an impact. Institutional racism can be prescribed by formal rules but also depends on organizational cultures that tolerate such behaviors and practices. The Institutional racism framework focuses on intra-institutional dynamics, not on interactions between institutions. 6 Examples Past segregation in the military Redlining in the housing industry The absence of advanced placement courses in many racially segregated high schools 7
  8. 8. Structural Racialization Visualizing Systems TheoryStructural Racialization is an analytical framework that assists inunderstanding how the joint operations of institutions create and maintainracial inequality. The Newtonian Perspective: Systems Thinking:In this framework, “structures” are defined as inter-institutionalarrangements and interactions. A DThese structures are neither natural or neutral. A  7 BCDE CIn all complex societies, institutional arrangements help to create anddistribute benefits, burdens, and interests.It is difficult, if not impossible, to understand the work that structures do increating and maintaining racial inequality by looking atphenomena may be Social the policies, Bpractices and procedures of a single institution. understood by breaking down the sum of the constituent parts. EInter-Institutional structures are multiple, intersecting, and often mutuallyreinforcing. Causation is reciprocal, mutual, and cumulative. 26 8
  9. 9. Structural Racialization:An Example Lack of affordable housing in “high- opportunity” areas restricts African Students attend low-performing Americans to hyper-segregated low schools opportunity communities HOUSING PRIMARY/SECONDARY EDUCATION Individuals lack traditional Students do not meet educational credentials for traditional measures of “merit” stable high wage employment in college admissions EMPLOYMENT HIGHER EDUCATION 9
  10. 10. Thompson v. HUDFiled in 1994 on behalf of a class of African American public housing residents.Plaintiffs claimed that the city of Baltimore, the Baltimore Housing Authority, and HUD acted inconcert over many decades to create a hyper-segregated system of public housing.Plaintiffs’ expert witnesses included john a. powell who presented an analysis of “access toopportunity” in the metro region, the harms of segregation, the development of public housing inthe context of larger regional patterns, and HUDs failure to pursue regional approaches.The Court’s decision faults HUD for failure to consider and implement a regional housing plan thatwould ameliorate racial segregation in Baltimore public housing.In its decision, the Court observed that :“Title VIII imposes upon HUD an obligation to do something more than simply refrain fromdiscriminating,” and that “through regionalization, HUD has the practical power and leverage toaccomplish desegregation through a course of action that Local Defendants could not implementon their own, given their own jurisdictional limitations.” 8 10
  11. 11. Today’s ChallengeIdentify the past and presentconditions, processes, practices, policies, interactions, andideologies that may have contributed to racial segregation inmetropolitan Baltimore, Maryland.Place each of these components into one or more of the categoriesthat typically account for racialized outcomes: Individual racial animus Implicit bias (“symbolic racism”) Colorblind racism Institutional racism Structural racialization 11
  12. 12. End Notes 1 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/racism 2 http://freedomkeys.com/ar-racism.htm 3National Crime Victims Survey reports an annual average of 161,000 racial or ethnic hate crimes in the U.S. between 2000 and 2003. Twenty-First Century Color Lines. Andrew Grant-Thomas and Gary Orfield, editors. 2009. 4 http://www.igpa.uillinois.edu/programs/racial-attitudes/brief 5Westen, Drew. The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation. New York: PublicAffairs, 2007. 6Grant-Thomas, Andrew and Gary Orfield, eds. Twenty-First Century Color Lines: Multiracial Change in Contemporary American. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009. 7 Unger, Roberto Mangabeira. Democracy Realized: The Progressive Alternative. New York: Verso, 2000. 8 Poverty & Race Research Action Council. “An Analysis of the Thompson v. HUD Decision.” February, 2005. http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:4ZKRo4W7m84J:www.prrac.org/pdf/ThompsonAnalysis.pdf+prrac+an +analysis+of+the+thompson&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us 12
  13. 13. www.kirwaninstitute.org(614) 688-5429 13

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