RACE AND SUBURBANIZATION:                 SHIFTING THE OPPORTUNITY                 PARADIGMjohn a. powellExecutive Directo...
•   Different communities are situated    differently with regards to    institutions•   Institutions mediate opportunity•...
STRUCTURES PERPETUATE ANDACCELERATE SEGREGATION  Not just segregation based on   phenotype  Segregation from opportunity...
EXAMPLE: RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION        “SEGREGATION AS A CONSEQUENCE”                                  Suburbanization = ...
EXAMPLE CONTD. :          “SEGREGATION AS A CAUSE”SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS INFORMED BY THE SPACE WE INHABIT Suburbs=   white ...
STRUCTURAL RACIALIZATION                    Context: The Dominant Consensus on Race       White privilege                 ...
SYSTEM INTERACTIONS                                                                 7Source: Barbara Reskin. http://facult...
THE CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF SPATIAL, RACIAL ANDOPPORTUNITY SEGREGATION            Segregation impacts a number of life-oppor...
THE IMPORTANCE OF PLACE:WE ALL LIVE IN OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES CALLED “NEIGHBORHOODS”         A TALE OF HIGH AND LOW OPPORT...
NEIGHBORHOODS MATTER!    Example: Educational    Outcomes   Sampson et.al.: Verbal    ability and concentrated    poverty...
HOUSING IS AN OPPORTUNITY ANCHOR AND KEYLEVERAGE POINT                        Health                                 Emplo...
INADEQUATE RESPONSES So far, policies have not been adequate in scope:  they have not moved people into opportunity De-c...
REFLECTING REALITY:          RETIRING THE OLD DICHOTOMY No longer city vs.  suburbs Some groups have had  modicum of suc...
MOVIN’ ON UP…?CHANGING DYNAMICS OF SEGREGATION….                                                                          ...
A Patchwork of Suburbanization…                                                       Some areas are still off-limitsSourc...
CHANGING DYNAMICS OF SEGREGATION….   Dissimilarity           School                Neighborhood   Index                   ...
PREVIOUS RESPONSES Romney and Nixon: the first and last attempt at including  suburbs in an urban policy Gautreaux: succ...
EXAMPLE: MTO DEMONSTRATION   5- city pilot program, based on de-concentration    strategy; race was not explicit indicato...
A BETTER EXAMPLE: GAUTREAUXA  court-ordered de-segregation strategy of  Chicago public housing residents into white  subu...
POTENTIAL RESPONSES        “AFFIRMATIVELY FURTHERING FAIR HOUSING”   What does this mean?       Not just fair housing/an...
A “BEST” RESPONSE:A ROBUST DEFINITION OF “OPPORTUNITY COMMUNITIES”        THOMSON V. HUD FAIR HOUSING LITIGATION   Propos...
…COMMUNITIES HAVE DIFFERENT    RESOURCES, AND THESE RESULT IN    DIFFERENTIAL OUTCOMES…Even where we have universal goals,...
RESPONSES CONTD.: MULTI-DISCIPLINARY           EXAMPLE: LIHTC AND SEGREGATED SCHOOLS    Cumulative effects of segregation ...
EXAMPLE: CONNECTING MULTIPLE DOMAINS           HOUSING AND SCHOOLS       HOW CAN WE REVERSE THIS PATTERN?   Low Opportunit...
SOME PROGRESS…   Federal Responses       Administrations Urban        Agenda       HUD’s “Sustainable        Communitie...
POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVES: STATE, REGIONAL,LOCAL     What about      foreclosures in      non-segregated      neighborhoods ...
27     Questions or Comments: www.kirwaninstitute.org     Visit www.kirwaninstitute.org
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Race and Suburbanization: Shifting the Opportunity Paradigm

993 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
993
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Race and Suburbanization: Shifting the Opportunity Paradigm

  1. 1. RACE AND SUBURBANIZATION: SHIFTING THE OPPORTUNITY PARADIGMjohn a. powellExecutive Director, The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of LawThe Diverse Suburb: History, Politics, and Prospects ConferenceOctober 22-24, 2009Hempstead, NY
  2. 2. • Different communities are situated differently with regards to institutions• Institutions mediate opportunity• Structural Inequality – Example: a Bird in a cage. Examining one wire cannot explain why a bird cannot fly. But multiple wires, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird.
  3. 3. STRUCTURES PERPETUATE ANDACCELERATE SEGREGATION  Not just segregation based on phenotype  Segregation from opportunity  Segregation embedded in our institutions and in our geography
  4. 4. EXAMPLE: RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION “SEGREGATION AS A CONSEQUENCE” Suburbanization = Federal Policies Private Institutions Institutionalized red-lining“If a neighborhood is to retain stability, it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes. A change in social or racial occupancy generally contributes to instability and a decline in values.” –Excerpt from the 1947FHA underwriting manual
  5. 5. EXAMPLE CONTD. : “SEGREGATION AS A CAUSE”SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS INFORMED BY THE SPACE WE INHABIT Suburbs= white  Cities= black
  6. 6. STRUCTURAL RACIALIZATION Context: The Dominant Consensus on Race White privilege National values Contemporary culture Current Manifestations: Social and Institutional Dynamics Processes that maintain racial Racialized public policies and hierarchies institutional practices Outcomes: Racial DisparitiesRacial inequalities in current levels of Capacity for individual and community well-being improvement is undermined 6 Ongoing Racial InequalitiesAdapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004
  7. 7. SYSTEM INTERACTIONS 7Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/
  8. 8. THE CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF SPATIAL, RACIAL ANDOPPORTUNITY SEGREGATION Segregation impacts a number of life-opportunities Impacts on Health School Segregation Impacts on Educational Achievement Exposure to crime; arrest Transportation limitations and other inequitable public services Neighborhood Job segregation Segregation Racial stigma, other psychological impacts Impacts on community power and 8 individual assets Adapted from figure by Barbara Reskin at: http://faculty.washington.edu/reskin/
  9. 9. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLACE:WE ALL LIVE IN OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES CALLED “NEIGHBORHOODS” A TALE OF HIGH AND LOW OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES Low Opportunity High Opportunity • Less the 25% of students in • The year my step daughter Detroit finish high school finished high school, 100% of the students graduated and • More the 60% of the men will 100% went to college spend time in jail • Most will not even drive by a jail • There may soon be no bus service in some areas • Free bus service • Relatively easy to attract capital • It is difficult to attract jobs or private capital • Very safe; great parks • Not safe; very few parks • Easy to get fresh food • Difficult to get fresh food
  10. 10. NEIGHBORHOODS MATTER! Example: Educational Outcomes Sampson et.al.: Verbal ability and concentrated poverty:  “living in a severely disadvantaged neighborhood reduces the later verbal ability of black children on average by 4 points, a magnitude that rivals missing a year or more of schooling.” Racial segregation and concentrated poverty:  the poverty of a school, more than the poverty of the individual, determines students’ educational outcomes
  11. 11. HOUSING IS AN OPPORTUNITY ANCHOR AND KEYLEVERAGE POINT Health Employment Childcare Housing Effective Education Participation Transportation 11
  12. 12. INADEQUATE RESPONSES So far, policies have not been adequate in scope: they have not moved people into opportunity De-concentration is not the same as moving people to opportunity More complex landscape, policy must reflect reality
  13. 13. REFLECTING REALITY: RETIRING THE OLD DICHOTOMY No longer city vs. suburbs Some groups have had modicum of success, but patchwork, and now new dynamic Exurbs, older suburbs, and what’s going on in the cities?  Gentrification, A New Form of Exclusion?
  14. 14. MOVIN’ ON UP…?CHANGING DYNAMICS OF SEGREGATION…. “African Americans and Latinos who reside in the suburbs are much more likely than suburban whites to live in fiscally stressed jurisdictions with below average public resources and greater than average public service needs.”Source: Institute on Race and Poverty, “Minority Suburbanization and Racial Change: Stable Integration,Neighborhood Transition,and the Need for Regional Approaches” May 2005. www.irpumn.org
  15. 15. A Patchwork of Suburbanization… Some areas are still off-limitsSource: Institute on Race and Poverty, “Minority Suburbanization and Racial Change: Stable Integration, Neighborhood Transition,and the Need for Regional Approaches” May 2005. www.irpumn.org
  16. 16. CHANGING DYNAMICS OF SEGREGATION…. Dissimilarity School Neighborhood Index Segregation Segregation Metro Region 1989- 1999- 1989- 1999- …School 90 00 90 00 segregation in Cleveland-Lorain- 38.1 71.2 84.3 75.3 some areas Elyria OH increases even as Columbus OH 39.6 65.3 68.1 61.7 residential Milwaukee- 44.2 64.9 78.9 75.2 segregation Waukesha, WI decreases Las Vegas, NV- 20.9 41.1 54.1 42.6 AZ Cincinnati, OH- 36.9 54.1 73.3 64.4 KY-IN Denver, CO 46.3 63.1 69 64.5Source: Lewis Mumford Center, “Choosing Segregation: Racial Imbalance in American Public Schools, 1990-2000 .” March 2002. http://mumford1.dyndns.org/cen2000/SchoolPop/SPReport/page1.html
  17. 17. PREVIOUS RESPONSES Romney and Nixon: the first and last attempt at including suburbs in an urban policy Gautreaux: successful in regional mobility, race conscious (i.e. de-segregation), but court-ordered  Improved outcomes in social, educational, and economic indicators MTO: ignored race, focused on class (i.e. de- concentration), 1-year pilot demonstration  Baltimore suburbs backlash  Less successful, why? Did not change the geography of residents!
  18. 18. EXAMPLE: MTO DEMONSTRATION 5- city pilot program, based on de-concentration strategy; race was not explicit indicator in recipient neighborhoods Outcomes: improvements in physical and mental health, perceptions of safety, BUT limited or no improvements in educational, economic, and employment outcomes Why limited effects?  MTO families were more likely to move to areas of transition, and predominantly minority within the central city  Geography of opportunity did not change: nearly ¾’s of moves were within the same school district
  19. 19. A BETTER EXAMPLE: GAUTREAUXA court-ordered de-segregation strategy of Chicago public housing residents into white suburbs Key Difference: race-conscious, larger geographic area Outcomes:  Improved school attendance rates  More likely to be in college-track programs and attend a 4-year college  If not attending college, then employed  Reporting earnings greater than $6.50/hour  Receiving employer benefits
  20. 20. POTENTIAL RESPONSES “AFFIRMATIVELY FURTHERING FAIR HOUSING” What does this mean?  Not just fair housing/anti- discrimination policies, but affirmatively linking people with opportunity Physical proximity to social institutions/resources is not enough  Social connections/infrastructure matter too Deliberate, Multi-disciplinary, & Regional
  21. 21. A “BEST” RESPONSE:A ROBUST DEFINITION OF “OPPORTUNITY COMMUNITIES” THOMSON V. HUD FAIR HOUSING LITIGATION Proposed Remedy: Used 14 indicators of neighborhood opportunity to designate high and low opportunity neighborhoods in the region • Neighborhood Quality/Health  Poverty, Crime, Vacancy, Property Values, Population Trends • Economic Opportunity  Proximity to Jobs and Job Changes, Public Transit • Educational Opportunity  School Poverty, School Test Scores, Teacher Qualifications 21
  22. 22. …COMMUNITIES HAVE DIFFERENT RESOURCES, AND THESE RESULT IN DIFFERENTIAL OUTCOMES…Even where we have universal goals, we have different paths Example: Universal Health care? Resource-rich(er) Resource-poor One community has  Another community no health insurance, has no health but a hospital down insurance and no the street. hospital.
  23. 23. RESPONSES CONTD.: MULTI-DISCIPLINARY EXAMPLE: LIHTC AND SEGREGATED SCHOOLS Cumulative effects of segregation and isolation, no single-issue policy response will be adequate Figure 8: Percentage of LIHTC Population Currently, LIHTC within Proximity to Segregated Schools: development is conflicting Population in with efforts to desegregate > household by 50 to 100% 90% schools. household Students of Color White Nearly ¾’s of African race: American and Hispanic American 16.8% 18.7% LIHTC residents are located Indian in segregated schools. Asian 6.9% 71.3% Black 6.0% 69.6% Hispanic 8.4% 74.3% Other Race 33.5% 23.2% 23 White 32.5% 17.0%
  24. 24. EXAMPLE: CONNECTING MULTIPLE DOMAINS HOUSING AND SCHOOLS HOW CAN WE REVERSE THIS PATTERN? Low Opportunity High Opportunity 24
  25. 25. SOME PROGRESS… Federal Responses  Administrations Urban Agenda  HUD’s “Sustainable Communities Initiative” Westchester Court Decision New Jersey Regional Contribution Agreements Repealed“The Legislature finds that the use of regional contribution agreements, which permits municipalities to transfer a certain portion of their fair share housing obligation outside of the municipal borders, should no longer be utilized as a mechanism for the creation of affordable housing by the council.” (A-500)
  26. 26. POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVES: STATE, REGIONAL,LOCAL  What about foreclosures in non-segregated neighborhoods for affordable housing?  What about strategic reuse of abandoned properties in distressed neighborhoods?Different communities will havedifferent structural needs
  27. 27. 27 Questions or Comments: www.kirwaninstitute.org Visit www.kirwaninstitute.org

×