Reproductive male-female

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Reproductive male-female

  1. 1. Reproductive system physiology<br />By<br />Khorrami Ph.D.<br />khorrami4@yahoo.com<br />http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Testis <br />Seminiferous tubules<br />900*50cm …..450m<br />80% volume of testis<br />Rete testis(anastomosing tubule)<br />Efferent ductules<br />Epididymis<br />5m long<br />Head …immature sperm<br />Body….sperm maturation<br />Tail ….sperm maturation<br />Vas deferens …. Decapacitation<br />Ejaculatory duct <br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Spermatogenesis needs<br />Sertoli<br />Leydig<br />Germ cells<br />Myoepithelial cells<br />Epithelial cells<br />
  7. 7. Spermatogenesis<br />Mitosis <br />Miosis<br />Spermiogenesis<br />spermiation<br />
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis <br />Stem cells<br />Mitosis<br />Spermatogonia<br />First spermatocyte<br />First miosis<br />Second spermatocyte<br />Second miosis<br />Spermatid<br />sperm<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Spermatogenesis <br />Spermatogenesis: The production of spermatozoa in the sertoli cells<br />Spermiogenesis: Conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa <br />Spermiation: Release of the spermatazoon into the lumen<br />Capacitation: Final maturation of the spermatazoon in the female genital tract<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />SPERMATOGENESIS<br />SPERMATOGONIA (DIPLOID)<br />MITOSIS<br />PRIMARY <br />SPERMATOCYTES<br />(DIPLOID)<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />SPERMATOGENESIS <br />PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES<br />MEIOSIS I<br />SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES<br />(HAPLOID)<br />MEIOSIS II<br />SPERMATIDS (HAPLOID)<br />SPERMIOGENESIS<br />SPERMATOZOA (HAPLOID)<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. 14<br />FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />SERTOLI CELL<br />
  17. 17. Spermatogenesis<br />Inhibited by:<br />Toxiphole<br />Hypokalemia<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Functions of Sertoli cells<br />Blood-testis barrier(sertoli-cell barrier) by tight junction<br />Adluminal compartment<br />Basal compartment<br />Supportive effects on germ cells<br />Nutritive effects on germ cells<br />Secretions <br />
  22. 22. 22<br />FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS<br /><ul><li>Secrete ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN & LUMINAL FLUID.
  23. 23. Secrete PARACRINE AGENTSStimulating proliferation & differentiation.</li></li></ul><li>23<br />FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS<br /><ul><li>Secrete the regulatory protein INHIBIN.
  24. 24. Secrete paracrine agents: FACILITATING LEYDIG CELL FUNCTION.
  25. 25. PHAGOCYTOSIS of defective sperm
  26. 26. Secrete MULLERIAN INHIBITING HORMONE(MIH)</li></li></ul><li>Secretions of Sertoli cells<br />Mullerian inhibitory factor (MIF)<br />Aromatase<br />Androgen binding protein (ABP)<br />Inhibin<br />Estrone/estradiol<br />DHT<br />GnRH-like peptide<br />Ceruloplasmin<br />Plasminogen activator<br />Follistatin<br />IGF-1<br />TGF<br />Transferrin<br />Cytokines <br />
  27. 27. Functions of leydig cells<br />Steroidogenesis …8-18th week of gest.<br />LH receptor/PRL(potentiate LH function)<br />Testosteron ..5-7mg/day<br />Androstenedione<br />Relaxin-like factor<br />A good marker for fully differentiated adult-type Leydig cells<br />Weakly expressed in prepubertal<br />Immature Leydig cells<br />By insulin-like factor 3 gene<br />
  28. 28. Relaxin-like factor 3(RLF)<br />In estrogen-induced cryptorchidism, RLF levels in the testis are significantly reduced<br />RLF secreted by theca cells of small antral follicles<br />RLF secreted by the corpus luteum of the cycle and pregnancy<br />
  29. 29. Testicular steroidogenesis<br />
  30. 30. 28<br />MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION<br />HYPOTHALAMUS<br />- ve feedback<br />GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE<br />ANTERIOR PITUITARY<br />- ve feedback<br />FSH<br />LH<br />TESTES<br />S<br />E<br />R<br />T<br />O<br />L<br />I<br />CELL<br />LEYDIG CELL<br />TESTOSTERONE<br />REP.TRACT<br />& OTHER ORGANS<br />SPERMATOGENESIS<br />INHIBIN<br />
  31. 31. 29<br />SEMEN ANALYSIS<br />A test for infertility<br />Semen contain:<br />Sperms<br />Secretions:<br />Seminal vesicles<br />Prostate<br />Cowper’s glands<br />Bulbo-urethral glands<br />
  32. 32. 30<br />SEMEN ANALYSIS<br />Volume: 2.5 to 3.5 ml/ejaculate<br />Sperm count: 100 M/ml.<br /><20% abnormal.<br /><20 M/ml, sterile<br />Sperm speed: 3mm/min.<br />Reach fallopian tube 30- 40 min after coitus.<br />
  33. 33. 31<br />SEMEN: COMPOSITION<br />Color: white, opalescent<br />Specific gravity: 1.028<br />Ph : 7.35 – 7.50<br />
  34. 34. 32<br />SEMEN<br />Liquid when ejaculated<br />Coagulates: <br />In vitro<br />In vagina<br />Undergoes secondary liquefaction after 15 min.<br />
  35. 35. 33<br />SPERMATOZOA<br />Fertile up to 24 to 48 hrs after deposition.<br />Motile, for 48 – 60 hrs.`<br />
  36. 36. Semen production<br />Seminal vesicle (60%)<br />Prostate (30%)<br />Bulbouretral gland (cowper)<br />Seminiferous tubule<br />
  37. 37. Semen composition<br />Fructose (for anaerobic metabolism of sperm)….sem.ves<br />Glucose, A.A. and sorbitol (for aerobic metabolism of sperm) ….sem.ves<br />Hormones (androgens, estrogens, progesterone)<br />Decapacitation factors (cholesterol/esterol) ….sem.ves<br />Prostoglandins ….sem.ves<br />Citrate<br />Ascorbic acid ….sem.ves<br />Lecithin ….sem.ves<br />Phosphorylcholine ….sem.ves<br />Potassium<br />Acid phosphatase<br />Phosphate<br />HCO3-<br />Acrosin inhibitor<br />Spermine (odor- coagulation) .....prostate<br />Sperm coating proteins.....prostate<br />Fibrinolysin .....prostate<br />Zinc .....prostate<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Testosterone & other steroids in man <br />Testis 95%<br />Adrenal 5%<br />Total: 5-7mg/day<br />DHT 50-100µg/day<br />17α-OH-progesterone 1-2mg/day<br />Estradiol 10-15µg/day<br />
  44. 44. Testosterone & other steroids <br />Castration ->increase in LH & FSH<br />Castration+ androgen ->increase in FSH only<br />Role of inhibin<br />
  45. 45. Androgen in plasma<br />SHBG 40%<br />Albumin 47%<br />Other proteins<br />
  46. 46. Metabolism of androgens<br />By urine<br />Excreted as 17KS 50%<br />Gluco & sulphoconjugation in liver<br />↓<br />Urinary 17-KS<br />Testis 30%<br />Adrenal 70%<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. 49<br />FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE)<br />Erection<br />Ejaculation<br />
  52. 52. 50<br />ERECTION<br />VASCULAR:<br />SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION<br />VENOCONSTRICTION<br />PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION <br />SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION<br />SMOOTH MUSCLES RELAX<br />
  53. 53. 51<br />PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS<br />INPUT FROM <br />MECHANORECEPTORS<br />OF PENIS<br />THOUGHTS<br />EMOTIONS<br />SIGHT, SMELL<br />NEURONS TO PENIS<br />NEURONS RELEASE nonCholinergic<br /> NEUROTRANSMITTER (NO)<br />INHIBITION ON SYMPATHETIC NEURONS<br />PENIS<br />ARTERIAL DILATATION + VENOCOMPRESSION<br />= ERECTION<br />
  54. 54. 52<br />EJACULATION<br />Sympathetic facilitation <br />Skeletal muscles contract<br />Two events:<br />EMISSION: Smooth muscles contract & semen sent into urethra<br />EXPULSION: Rapid contraction of urethral smooth muscles. <br />
  55. 55. 53<br />MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES<br />CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED TESTES)<br />THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS INCOMPLETE IN 10% OF NEONATES<br />SPONTANEOUS DESCENT OCCURS LATER<br />INCIDENCE: 2% AT INFANCY & 0.3% AFTER PUBERTY<br />COMPLICATIONS: INCREASED INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR MALIGNANCIES & INFERTILITY.<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Testosterone /effects<br />
  59. 59. Synthesis of the male sex hormones in Leydig cells of the testis. P450SSC, 3b-DH, and P450c17 are the same enzymes as those needed for adrenal steroid hormone synthesis. 17,20-desmolase is the same as 17,20-lyase of adrenal hormone synthesis..<br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
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  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. LH & FSH during life of a woman<br />
  68. 68. HL: FSH>LH<br />
  69. 69. Follicles <br />At 20th week …..20mil<br />At birth …………1-2 mil<br />At puberty ……..300-400k<br />During reproductive period..400-500<br />
  70. 70. Uterine cycle<br />Proliferative<br />Secretory<br />Ischemic<br />Bleeding <br />
  71. 71. Estrogen in proliferation phase <br />Cell proliferation in endometrium<br />Growth of ER & mitochondria in endometrium<br />Increase glycogen storage<br />Endometrial glands<br />Dilation of arteries and coiled<br />Increase in progesterone receptors<br />Increase sensitivity & contractility of myometrium<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. Secretory phase<br />Secretion of mucus<br />Continue to proliferation<br />Edema of endometrium<br />Decrease contraction of myometrium<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75. Menstrual cycle<br />
  76. 76. Ovarian cycle<br />Follicular phase<br />Preovulatory phase<br />Ovulatory phase<br />Luteal phase <br />Luteolysis phase<br />
  77. 77. Steroidogenesis in ovary<br />
  78. 78. Follicle graaf<br />Theca interna is rich in Scc450(desmolase)<br />Theca interna cells have LH receptors<br />Granulosa cells are rich in aromatase<br />Granulosa cells have LH & FSH receptors<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80. Synthesis of the major female sex hormones in the ovary. Synthesis of testosterone and androstenedione from cholesterol occurs by the same pathways as indicated for synthesis of the male sex hormones.<br />
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
  83. 83. Hohlweg effect<br />Critical plasma concentration for estrogen<br />200pg/ml<br />For 36 hrs<br />No response to 100pg/ml<br />Increase GnRH receptor on gonadotrops (est & PGE2)<br />Increase the enzymatic activity of gonadotrops(est)<br />Increase amplitude & frequency of GnRH(est & PGE2)<br />
  84. 84.
  85. 85.
  86. 86. PGs & follicular rupture<br />
  87. 87. Ovulation <br />Androgen to estrogen microenvironment<br />More FSH receptors <br />Hohlweg effect<br />Less OMI concentration<br />Plasminogen activator<br />Plasmin<br />Fibrinolysin<br />Collagenase<br />Inhibin<br />FSH & LH…..increase in cAMP<br />Prostaglandin F2α( 2-5 hrs before ovulation)<br />Completion of first miosis<br />Contraction of ovarian smooth muscles<br />Oxytocin<br />
  88. 88. Ovulation <br />
  89. 89. Luteal phase<br />Progesterone secretion<br />Negative Fern test<br />LH support<br />Maximum activity: 6-8 days after ovulation <br />
  90. 90. Luteolysis<br />PGF2α:<br />Reduction in blood flow of corpus luteum<br />Increase estrogen secretion<br />Reduce response of corpus luteum to LH<br />Increase OT secretion from CL<br />
  91. 91. Menstrual cycle<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94. Capacitation<br />Remove of HMW glycoprotein (polylactoseamine) & peptides<br />Whiplash-like pattern of hyperactivation of sperm<br />Removing sterol & cholesterol from the surface<br />Rearrangement of surface molecules<br />Increase permeability to calcium<br />Hyaloronidase activity<br />Galactosyl-transferase activity<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. Acrosome reaction<br />Calcium entrance- Ca-cal<br />Increase cAMP<br />Activation of phospholipaseA2<br />Increasing lysophospholipids<br />Adhesion <br />pH: 5.2 to 7:00<br />Segmentation of acrosome<br />
  97. 97.
  98. 98.
  99. 99.
  100. 100. Syngamy<br />After enter the sperm, 2nd polar body<br />After 30 min, disperse of sperm nucleus<br />After 6-8 hrs, pronucleus & syngamy<br />After 27-43 hrs, first division<br />
  101. 101.
  102. 102.
  103. 103.
  104. 104.
  105. 105. Origin of testosterone in women<br />
  106. 106. Factors affecting SHBG<br />Stimulator <br />Estrogen<br />Hyperthyroidism<br />Ageing <br />Inhibitors <br />Progestins (except OH-prog)<br />GH<br />Glucocorticosteroids<br />Hypothyroidism<br />
  107. 107. Relation of MCR of steroids & affinity to SHBG<br />
  108. 108. DHEA-S concentration versus age<br />
  109. 109. Distribution of plasma testosterone & estadiol<br />
  110. 110. Aromatase activity in<br />Muscle (25-30% in normal conditions)<br />Adipose tissue<br />Skin fibroblasts<br />Hair follicles<br />Brain<br />Aromatase has more affinity to androstenedione than testosterone <br />
  111. 111. Sources of estrone in women<br />
  112. 112. Strogens<br />Estradiol; 95% by ovary<br />Estrone; peripheral conversion<br />In normal women: E1/E2 <1 <br />

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