Reproductive system physiology

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Reproductive system physiology

  1. 1. Reproductive system physiology<br />By<br />Khorrami Ph.D.<br />http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com<br />khorrami4@yahoo.com<br />
  2. 2. Reproductive endocrinology<br />Chromosome & genetic determinants, related abnormalities & syndromes. <br />Enzymes that influence steroidogenesis. <br />Brain, male type & female-type brain. sex and gender<br />Puberty; theories & mechanisms involved <br />Male reproductive organ, testis, spermatogenesis<br />Female reproductive organ.<br />Menstrual cycle; Ovulation, premenstrual syndrome ,follicle, hirsutism<br />Fertilization; theories, decapacitation and capacitation. <br />Placenta; hormonal action<br />Physiologic changes during pregnancy<br />Physiologic changes during pregnancy, endocrine disorders during pregnancy<br />Parturition; pain, endocrinology of parturition<br />Lactation; physiological functions of prolactin<br /> Menopause/ andropause<br />Steroid hormones<br />Growth factors <br />Important hormones in reproductive system, prostaglandins, thromboxanes & leukotrienes & reproductive system<br />Physiological actions of prostaglandins, pathological & their therapeutically usage <br />Stem cell, cloning & related articles<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Sexual reproduction<br />Since 1 billion years ago<br />Most important factor in development of life<br />
  5. 5. Stages in sexual development<br />Genetic<br />Gonadal sex<br />Phenotypic sex<br />Neuronal sex<br />Gender identity <br />
  6. 6. Cytogenetic techniques <br />Q-bands: identification of Y & 21, 22<br />Quinacrinehcl<br />UV<br />G-bands: identification of all chromosomes<br />Giemsa<br />Based on bands in homologous chromosomes<br />C-bands: reflect constitutive heterochromatin<br />Repetitive DNA without specified message<br />Alkaline denaturation<br />Interstitial location in Y <br />Determine the origin of fault<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Chromosomal faults<br />Mosaism<br />Chimerism<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Genital differentiationJost(1953-1973)on rabbit<br />Castrated fetuses at different stages then continue the pregnancy<br />Castration of male<br />Int. & ext. genitalia ->female<br />Castration of female<br />No appreciable effect/ normal female genitalia<br /><ul><li>Presence of ovary is not essential for development of fallopian tube & uterus
  17. 17. Female is default sex in human</li></li></ul><li>Genital differentiationJost(1953-1973)on rabbit<br />Castrated fetuses at different stages then continue the pregnancy<br />Castration of male + testosterone <br />Wolfian duct development<br />Failed to regression of muller<br />Josso(1974)-> sertoli cells-> a macromolecule-> MIH<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Autosomal gene Sox9<br />Ch;17 for sertoli cell differentiation<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Sexual development<br />
  22. 22. Sexual development<br />
  23. 23. Genital development <br />Wolfian duct<br />Vasa deferent<br />Seminal vesicle<br />Epididymis<br />Urogenital sinus<br />Prostate <br />Cowper’s gland<br />Mullerian duct<br />Fallopian tube<br />Uterus <br />Upper portion of vagina<br />Urogenital sinus<br />Lower vagina<br />Bartholien glands<br />
  24. 24. Sex differentiation <br />
  25. 25. Sexual development<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. True hermaphrodism<br />XX karyotype<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Testicular feminization<br />X-linked recessive<br />End pouch vagina<br />Testis <br />No internal female organ<br />Breast development<br />Paucity of pubic hair<br />
  31. 31. Abnormal development of reproductive system<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Pathways of steroid hormone biosynthesis<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. estrone<br />Estradiol<br />
  37. 37. Adrenal/gonadal androgens <br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Steroidogenesis in adrenal<br />androstenediol<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. 5-αreductase<br />Finasteride (5-αreductase inhibitor)<br />
  43. 43. Arenogenitalsyndrme<br />21β-hydroxylase deficiency<br />Enlarged phalus<br />Fused labioscrotal folds<br />Hi MSH<br />Tan skin<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Metabolism of steroids:<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Abbreviations: CYP11A1, cholesterolmside-chain cleavage enzyme; desmolase; CYP17, 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase; 3b-HSD, 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; CYP21A2, 21-hydroxylase; CYP11B1, 11b-hydroxylase; CYP11B2, aldosterone synthase, corticosterone 18-methylcorticosterone oxidase/lyase. <br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Mechanisms in brain differentiation<br />Altering neuronal genomic expression<br />Regional cell growth<br />Proliferation <br />Death, cell number, size, or packing density<br />Early migrational patterns<br />Dendritic growth<br />Neuronal myelination <br />
  52. 52. Brain types<br />Sexually dimorphic nucleus of medial preoptic area (SDN-POA) male>2.5female<br />Preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area<br />Men: higher proportion of gray matter to cranial volume<br />Women: higher proportion of white matter <br />Women: larger corpus callosum<br />No sex differences in general IQ<br />Men typically excel in spacial & quantitative abilities<br />Women: on tasks involving verbal abilities, perceptual speed and accuracy, and fine motor skills <br />Men: more specialized skill <br />
  53. 53. Alpha-feto-protein<br />Is a globulin<br />Produced by <br />Fetal liver<br />Yalk sac<br />Starts at 4th week<br />Max secretion at 24th week<br />Absent at 24th week<br />Regulate steroid hormones<br />
  54. 54. Estrogen on brain<br />Timing<br />AFP<br />SHBG<br />
  55. 55. Brain differences <br />
  56. 56. Brain types<br />Male type brain<br />Homosexuality <br />Fraternal birth order effect<br />Blanchard and Bogaert(1996):<br />Maternal immune hypothesis<br />
  57. 57. neurosteroids<br />Sexual behavior<br />Developmental enhancing effect<br />Memory enhancing effect<br />Pregnancy<br />Stress <br />
  58. 58. Progesterone & neurosteroids<br />Schwann cells secrete progesterone, important in myelination<br />Progesterone stimulate myelin protein synthesis<br />Convert to 5α-OH prog. by 5α-reductase<br />Then to 3α,5β-OH-prog. by 3α-OHS-oxidoreductase in glial cells, <br />Act on GABA & NMDA receptor(potentiate)<br />
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Aromatase & breast cancer<br />1 Schematic of metabolic pathways in an ER-positive cell that can be affected by AIs. The left side represents the active pathways and cellular responses under normal estrogen control. The right side depicts the blockade of pathways involving ERs and the resultant cellular responses. AI, aromatase inhibitor; E2, estradiol; ER, estrogen receptor; MAP, mitogen-activated protein; PI-3, phosphoinositide-3; RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase; SERD, selective estrogen receptor down-regulator; SERM, selective estrogen receptor modulator<br />
  61. 61. Androgen production<br />5α-reductase in:<br />prostate<br />Scrotum<br />Penis<br />Liver<br />Hair follicles<br />Skin<br />Glial cells<br />
  62. 62. These factors are essential for:<br />
  63. 63.
  64. 64. Gonadotropin secretion<br />Testis activity: at 7th week<br />Ovary activity: at 14th week<br />Portal system is intact at 11.5th week<br />Axon fibers of LRH in ME at 16th week<br />Functional fetal LRH at the end of first trimester<br />
  65. 65. Gonadotropin secretion<br />FSH & LH are detectable at 10th week<br />Increase sharply until 25-29th week<br />Then decline<br />At birth: hi level of hCG and estrogen(breast budding)<br />Low level of gonadotropins<br />After a week: decline of hCG and estrogen<br />Rising of gonadotropins<br /><ul><li>In boys: More response of LH to GnRH</li></ul>start to decline before 4th month<br />In girls: More response of FSH to GnRH<br />start to decline before 4th year <br />
  66. 66. puberty<br />Factores affecting<br />Mechanisms involved<br />Gene or chromosome?<br />Stages<br />
  67. 67. Factors affecting puberty<br />Genetic<br />Geographic<br />Socioeconomic<br />Inheritance<br />Altitude<br />Life style(activity)<br />Nutrition <br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. Gonadotropin secretion pattern <br />Tonic<br />Cyclic <br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Control of HT on gonadotropin secretion<br />Maturation of sex steroid receptors in LRH neurons<br />Maturation of sex hormone-independent inhibitory pathways<br />
  72. 72. Cyclic secretion of gonadotropins<br />In men: LH: every 90-120min<br />1μg/min for 6min every hr<br />Mid and late luteal phase: every 3-4 hrs<br />
  73. 73. Gonadotropins<br />Stimulator<br />(on GnRH pulse)<br />Inhibitor <br />(on GnRH pulse)<br />Adrenalin<br />Noradrenalin<br />Dopamine <br />Estrogen<br />PGs<br />Histamine<br />Bradykinin<br />5-HT<br />Opioids<br />Endorphin<br />Enkephalin<br />Progesterone<br />Melatonin <br />
  74. 74. HL: FSH>LH<br />
  75. 75.
  76. 76. Puberty gene <br />GPR54 defect<br />In Saudi family<br />Hypogonadotrophichypogonadism<br />Puberty delay<br />Sexual infantilism<br />Low GnRH but responsible pituitary to exogenous GnRH<br />
  77. 77. Puberty gene <br />GPR54<br />On chromosome 19<br />Encodes a Gprotein–coupled receptor <br />A member of rhodopsin family of G-pr coupled receptor<br />This receptoris essential for normal GnRH physiologyand for puberty.<br />Metastin(kisspeptin-1) is an agonist on the same receptor<br />Secreted by placenta<br />Normal delivery<br />Defect in X-linked kallmann’s syndrome <br />
  78. 78. Gonadotropin regulation<br />Sex hormone dependent<br />In MBH & arcuate nucleus<br />Sex hormone independent<br />
  79. 79. Puberty stages<br />Adrenarche (prepubertal)<br />2 year before second event<br />SHBG increase in both sexes<br />Gonadarche<br />SHBG decrease more in boys<br />
  80. 80. SHBG<br />Stimulator: <br />Estrogen<br />Thyroid hormones<br />In old ages<br />Obesity<br />Estrogen ↑<br />Androgen ↓<br />Inhibitor:<br />GH (Acromegaly)<br />Glucocorticoids(Cushing)<br />Androgens <br />Progestin <br />
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
  85. 85. Negative feedback<br />
  86. 86.
  87. 87.
  88. 88.
  89. 89.
  90. 90. Sleep-induced LH pulse <br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92.
  93. 93. Control of adrenal cortex<br />
  94. 94. Growth of adrenal<br />
  95. 95. Adrenal cortex development<br />
  96. 96. Dhea-s secretion<br />
  97. 97. Hormones during puberty<br />
  98. 98. Growth spurt during puberty<br />Peripuberty<br />Peak height velocity(PHV)<br />Decrease velocity, epiphyseal fusion<br />
  99. 99.
  100. 100. Satiety hormones<br />Ghrelin<br />Obeststin<br />Leptin<br />Orexin<br />Amylin<br />
  101. 101. Oral androgens decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. <br />selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen and raloxifene<br />
  102. 102. Pineal gland<br />Pinealocytes: produce and secret melatonin <br />Peptidergic neuron-like cells<br />Interstitial cells<br />Perivascular phagocytes<br />Pineal neurons <br />Pineal calcification is hi in regions with hi frequency of breast cancer<br />
  103. 103. melatonin<br />Melatonin was discovered in 1958 <br />By American physician Aaron B. Lerner<br />Derivative of tryptophan<br />
  104. 104. Melatonin secretion<br />
  105. 105.
  106. 106. Light signal transmition<br />Retina<br />SCN of HT<br />PVN<br />Intermediolateral cell column<br />Superior cervical ganglia<br />Pineal gland<br />
  107. 107.
  108. 108. Melatonin receptores<br />Most abundant in SCN & anterior pituitary( pars tuberalis)<br />Mel1A & Mel1B<br />Block out the blue rays of light to avoid postpartum depression<br />

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