3D Cartography

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Slides from my presentation at the British Cartographic Society Annual Symposium 2014. Not much use without the words and jokes but there's some pretty pictures.

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3D Cartography

  1. 1. 3D cartography glitz, glamour and sometimes useful Kenneth Field
  2. 2. Nepal Uzbekistan
  3. 3. Length Area Volume
  4. 4. Perception of 3D pie charts
  5. 5. Scale Roger Smith, Geographx
  6. 6. Scale Direction Roger Smith, Geographx
  7. 7. Scale Direction Focus Roger Smith, Geographx
  8. 8. Scale Direction Focus Occlusions Roger Smith, Geographx
  9. 9. Scale Direction Focus Occlusions Sectioning Roger Smith, Geographx
  10. 10. Difficulties with 3D Comparisons Estimation of value/volume Perspective distortion Symbol scale distortion Directional inconsistencies Focal point Occlusions Sectioning Rotation disorientating Technically challenging
  11. 11. Difficulties with 3D Comparisons Estimation of value/volume Perspective distortion Symbol scale distortion Directional inconsistencies Focal point Occlusions Sectioning Rotation disorientating Technically challenging So why do we use 3D?… Visually interesting Real-world view Better terrain recognition Unconstrained Lacks rules Aesthetically exciting Pushes the limits More artistic/less graphic Great for marketing and advertising …because we’ve always used 3D
  12. 12. 2300 B.C.
  13. 13. 2005-present
  14. 14. and beyond…
  15. 15. and even further beyond…
  16. 16. 120o120o 120o 110o 120o 130o 109o 116o 135o Axonometric
  17. 17. Jenny and Patterson (2007)
  18. 18. Smith (2012) Parallel Orthographic (Axonometric)
  19. 19. Petrovic & Masera
  20. 20. 2D Topo drape BW drape 3D Natural distance height orientation navigation Measurement
  21. 21. Object recognition Topo drape BW drape 3D Natural building church road stream forest rocks
  22. 22. Map type preference
  23. 23. 3D guidelines • Use dictates structure - Promotional maps require less structure. Thematics require more structure • Impact - 3D can be powerful, eye-catching and immersive. Use to support attention-grabbing needs • Content - Simplification and Generalisation have never been more important. Clean. Simple. Functional • Texture - Avoid flat colours…add textures • Natural realistic not photorealistic • Symbols - Mimetic symbols support easier recognition • Typography - Still important but don’t overload. Rotate with scene if possible but not to be overbearing • Projection - Use axonometric where possible to maintain scale particularly for analytical map functions
  24. 24. 3D guidelines • Sky and haze – avoid sky but include haze which aids depth cue perception • Space-Time Cubes - Good for linear data, OK for point, poor for area…try not to overload or stack • Z value does not have to depict height or time (get creative!) • Scene control - Avoids occlusions by supporting multiple views but avoid too much rotation • Bookmarks - Guide users…supports camera reposition without user control • Interaction - Allow data to be recovered, overcomes measurement limits • Narration - Guides and improves interpretation
  25. 25. 3D guidelines If the third dimension doesn’t encode something useful… STICK WITH 2D
  26. 26. Thank you Kenneth Field www.arcgis.com Maps with Attitude

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