Our physical environment is three-dimensional and we move around in 3D every day
Capture is inputting spatial data to the system. Structuring determines the range of functions, which can be used for manipulation and analysis.Manipulation, among important manipulation operations are generalisation and transformation. Analysis, is the core of a GIS system. It involves metric, topological and/or order operations on geometric and attribute data. Terrainanalysis (e.g. intervisibility), geometric computations (volume, area, etc), overlay, buffering, zoning, sorting are among typical analysis functions in G IS.Presentation, is to present all the generated information or results such as in the form of maps, graphs, tables, reports, etc.
Specific functions of objects modelled in VR systems, and referred to as behaviours, gain an increased popularity as tools for walking through the model, exploring particular phenomena and improving the cognitive perception (see Kraak 1998,
Spatial data can be modelled in different ways. The conceptual 3D model integratesinformation about semantics, 3D geometry and 3D spatial relationships (3D topology). Theconceptual model provides the methods for.
Three dimensional (3D) GIS
Wellington T Gwavava
What is 3D GIS?
system that is able to
model, represent, manage, manipulate, a
nalyze and support decisions based upon
information associated with threedimensional phenomena (Worboys, 1995)
What is 3D?
or appearing to have length,
breadth, and depth.
What is GIS?
Information System (GIS) is
an integrated system of computer
hardware, software, and trained
personnel linking topographic,
demographic, utility, facility, image and
other resource data that is geographically
referenced.” ~ NASA
Components of GIS
Capture /Data Acquisition
inputting spatial data to the system.
Many different techniques and devices
are available for both geometric and
The devices in frequent use for collecting
spatial data can be classified as
manual, semiautomatic or automatic and
the output either vector or raster format.
Structuring /Data Storage
is a crucial stage in creating a spatial
database using a GIS.
This is because it determines the range of
functions, which can be used for
manipulation and analysis.
3D system have different structuring
capabilities (complex topology and
manipulation operations are
generalization and transformation.
Generalisation is applied for reducing
data complexity or to make the data
presentation more legible.
Transformation includes coordinate
transformation to a specified map
projection and scaling
This is the core of a GIS system.
It involves metric, topological and/or order
operations on geometric and attribute data.
Primarily, analysis in GIS concerns operations
on more than one set of data, which
generates new spatial information of the
Terrain analysis (e.g. intervisibility), geometric
(volume, area, etc), overlay, buffering, zoning
, sorting are among typical analysis functions
in G IS.
Conduct volumetric and cut-fill computations
Construct interpolation of surface z-values
Create vertical profiles along linear features
is a final task in GIS.
That is to present all the generated
information or results in the form of maps,
graphs, tables, reports
This may also include Visualization,
navigation, user interface and internet
Aerial view (2D)
3D non-textured view
3D GIS :
Visualization, navigation and
in the area of computer
graphics have made 3D visualization a
major ingredient of the current interface
3D Tools to effortlessly explore and
navigate through large models in real
time, and texture the geometry.
Observations on the demand for 3D City
models are now possible i.e. Google Earth
Why do we need 3D GIS?
of complex systems provide
understanding on how the system
operates different perspectives, aided by
high quality visualization and interaction
Observation of system feature that would
be to small or too large to be seen on a
normal scale system
Access to situation that would otherwise
be dangerous or too remote or
Why do we need 3D GIS?
high degree of interaction which is
important to aid understanding
Provide a sense of immersion of the
environment where the user can
appreciate the scale of change and
visualize the impact of a building design
on the external environment and the
Why do we need 3D GIS?
Allows export to popular multimedia such as
video (.avi or .mpeg) or VRML (.vrl or .vrml) that
provide the following benefits
Do not need to know 3D GIS, simply use intuitive
and easy to use interface to operate the 3D model
Inherent flexibility/adaptability – these multimedia
are 3D cross-platform display and non-browser
specific which enable expensive data to be used
Fast and slow time simulation – ability to control
timescale by incorporating a sequence of
captured events into the key frames (or snapshots)
of the motion video
3D GIS: Challenges
collection – cost of 3D modeling and
time to acquire consistent geometric and
Spatial analysis – there is a need for
formalism for detecting spatial relationships
based on set topology notions
Internet access – remote access to 3D on
demand spatial information has high
computational and network overhead
3D GIS: Challenges
model - The design of a
conceptual model is a subject of intensive
i.e. describing real-world objects and
spatial relationships between them
Efforts by Major GIS Vendors
PAMAP GIS Topographer
MS Virtual Earth
time 3D GIS, providing visualization of
3D GIS at a whole city scale always faces
the challenge of dynamic data loading
4D GIS, with a time defined analytics GIS
aid in disaster management urban
planning by predictive models of 3D
3D GIS has the same basic definition as 2D GIS
3D GIS provides the most efficient technology
for spatial data management
3D GIS faces few implementation challenges,
overcome by technological advances
3D GIS the next generation of GIS, it is still yet
to become mainstream
3D GIS has vast number of applications, it is
currently used in specialized fields
The evolution of GIS is cyclical as it revisits self
 Coors, V., 2002, 3D GIS in Networking environments, CEUS (to be published), 17 p.
 Oosterom. P.J.M. van, J.E. Stoter, S. Zlatanova, W.C. Quak, 2002, The balance between
Geometry and Topology, Advances in Spatial Data handling, D.Richardson, P.van Oosterom
(Eds.), Ottawa, Canada, 9-12 July
 Coors, V. and V. Jung, 1998, Using VRML as an Interface to the 3D data warehouse, in:
Proceedings of VRML'98, New York
 Abdul-Rahman, A., 2000. The design and implementation of two and three-dimensional
triangular irregular network (TIN) based GIS. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, Scotland,
United Kingdom, 250 p.  P. Vessen, “wireless Power transmission,” Leonardo energy; briefing
 Deren Li, Qing Zhu Qiang, Liu Peng Xu., From 2D to 3D GIS for CYBERCITY ,State Key
Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan
 Claire Ellul, Muki Haklay. 2006 Requirements for Topology in 3D GIS
 Billen R., S. Zlatanova, P. Mathonet and F. Boniver, 2002, The Dimensional Model: a framework
to distinguish spatial relationships, in: Advances in Spatial Data handling, D.Richardson, P.van
Oosterom (Eds.), Springer, Ottawa, Canada, 9-12 July, pp. 285-298
 Alias Abdul Rahman1, Sisi Zlatanova2, Morakot Pilouk, The 3D GIS Software Development:
global efforts from researchers and vendors