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# Three dimensional (3D) GIS

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• Our physical environment is three-dimensional and we move around in 3D every day
• Capture is inputting spatial data to the system. Structuring determines the range of functions, which can be used for manipulation and analysis.Manipulation, among important manipulation operations are generalisation and transformation. Analysis, is the core of a GIS system. It involves metric, topological and/or order operations on geometric and attribute data. Terrainanalysis (e.g. intervisibility), geometric computations (volume, area, etc), overlay, buffering, zoning, sorting are among typical analysis functions in G IS.Presentation, is to present all the generated information or results such as in the form of maps, graphs, tables, reports, etc.
• Specific functions of objects modelled in VR systems, and referred to as behaviours, gain an increased popularity as tools for walking through the model, exploring particular phenomena and improving the cognitive perception (see Kraak 1998,
• Spatial data can be modelled in different ways. The conceptual 3D model integratesinformation about semantics, 3D geometry and 3D spatial relationships (3D topology). Theconceptual model provides the methods for.
• ### Three dimensional (3D) GIS

1. 1. 3D Geographic Information System Wellington T Gwavava
2. 2. 2 9:34 AM What is 3D GIS? A system that is able to model, represent, manage, manipulate, a nalyze and support decisions based upon information associated with threedimensional phenomena (Worboys, 1995)
3. 3. 3 What is 3D?  having or appearing to have length, breadth, and depth. 9:34 AM
4. 4. 4 9:34 AM What is GIS?  “Geographic Information System (GIS) is an integrated system of computer hardware, software, and trained personnel linking topographic, demographic, utility, facility, image and other resource data that is geographically referenced.” ~ NASA
5. 5. 5 Components of GIS  Hardware  Software  Data  People 9:34 AM
6. 6. 6 GIS functions  Capture /Data Acquisition  Structuring /Data Storage  Manipulation  Analysis  Presentation 9:34 AM
7. 7. 7 9:34 AM Capture /Data Acquisition  is inputting spatial data to the system.  Many different techniques and devices are available for both geometric and attribute data.  The devices in frequent use for collecting spatial data can be classified as manual, semiautomatic or automatic and the output either vector or raster format.
8. 8. 8 9:34 AM Capture /Data Acquisition (2)
9. 9. 9 9:34 AM Structuring /Data Storage  This is a crucial stage in creating a spatial database using a GIS.  This is because it determines the range of functions, which can be used for manipulation and analysis.  3D system have different structuring capabilities (complex topology and object-oriented).
10. 10. 10 Structuring /Data Storage 9:34 AM (2)
11. 11. 11 Manipulation  Important manipulation operations are generalization and transformation.  Generalisation is applied for reducing data complexity or to make the data presentation more legible.  Transformation includes coordinate transformation to a specified map projection and scaling 9:34 AM
12. 12. 12 Manipulation (2) 9:34 AM
13. 13. 13 9:34 AM Analysis     This is the core of a GIS system. It involves metric, topological and/or order operations on geometric and attribute data. Primarily, analysis in GIS concerns operations on more than one set of data, which generates new spatial information of the data. Terrain analysis (e.g. intervisibility), geometric computations (volume, area, etc), overlay, buffering, zoning , sorting are among typical analysis functions in G IS.
14. 14. 14 Analysis   (2) Evaluate steepest slope Perform visibility analysis 9:34 AM
15. 15. 15 Analysis    (3) Conduct volumetric and cut-fill computations Construct interpolation of surface z-values Create vertical profiles along linear features 9:34 AM
16. 16. 16 9:34 AM Presentation  This is a final task in GIS.  That is to present all the generated information or results in the form of maps, graphs, tables, reports  This may also include Visualization, navigation, user interface and internet access
17. 17. 17 Presentation Aerial view (2D) 9:34 AM (3) 3D non-textured view
18. 18. 18 9:34 AM 3D GIS : Visualization, navigation and user interface  Advances in the area of computer graphics have made 3D visualization a major ingredient of the current interface of GIS  3D Tools to effortlessly explore and navigate through large models in real time, and texture the geometry.  Observations on the demand for 3D City models are now possible i.e. Google Earth
19. 19. 19 9:34 AM Why do we need 3D GIS?  Simulation of complex systems provide understanding on how the system operates different perspectives, aided by high quality visualization and interaction  Observation of system feature that would be to small or too large to be seen on a normal scale system  Access to situation that would otherwise be dangerous or too remote or inaccessible
20. 20. 20 Why do we need 3D GIS?  Enable 9:34 AM (2) high degree of interaction which is important to aid understanding  Provide a sense of immersion of the environment where the user can appreciate the scale of change and visualize the impact of a building design on the external environment and the inhabitants
21. 21. 21 Why do we need 3D GIS?  9:34 AM (3) Allows export to popular multimedia such as video (.avi or .mpeg) or VRML (.vrl or .vrml) that provide the following benefits    Do not need to know 3D GIS, simply use intuitive and easy to use interface to operate the 3D model Inherent flexibility/adaptability – these multimedia are 3D cross-platform display and non-browser specific which enable expensive data to be used more widely Fast and slow time simulation – ability to control timescale by incorporating a sequence of captured events into the key frames (or snapshots) of the motion video
22. 22. 22 Applications 3D GIS             ecological studies 3D urban mapping environmental monitoring landscape planning geological analysis Architecture civil engineering automatic vehicle navigation mining exploration archeology hydrographic surveying marine biology 9:34 AM
23. 23. 23 9:34 AM 3D GIS: Challenges  Data collection – cost of 3D modeling and time to acquire consistent geometric and textural data  Spatial analysis – there is a need for formalism for detecting spatial relationships based on set topology notions  Internet access – remote access to 3D on demand spatial information has high computational and network overhead
24. 24. 24 3D GIS: Challenges  Conceptual 9:34 AM (2) model - The design of a conceptual model is a subject of intensive i.e. describing real-world objects and spatial relationships between them
25. 25. 25 9:34 AM Efforts by Major GIS Vendors  ArcView 3D Analyst  Imagine VirtualGIS  GeoMedia Terrain  PAMAP GIS Topographer  3dvia  SPACEYES  MS Virtual Earth  Google Earth
26. 26. 26 9:34 AM Future Developments  Real time 3D GIS, providing visualization of 3D GIS at a whole city scale always faces the challenge of dynamic data loading with high-efficiency.  4D GIS, with a time defined analytics GIS aid in disaster management urban planning by predictive models of 3D states
27. 27. 27 9:34 AM Summary       3D GIS has the same basic definition as 2D GIS 3D GIS provides the most efficient technology for spatial data management 3D GIS faces few implementation challenges, overcome by technological advances 3D GIS the next generation of GIS, it is still yet to become mainstream 3D GIS has vast number of applications, it is currently used in specialized fields The evolution of GIS is cyclical as it revisits self concepts
28. 28. 28 References              [1] Coors, V., 2002, 3D GIS in Networking environments, CEUS (to be published), 17 p. [2] Oosterom. P.J.M. van, J.E. Stoter, S. Zlatanova, W.C. Quak, 2002, The balance between Geometry and Topology, Advances in Spatial Data handling, D.Richardson, P.van Oosterom (Eds.), Ottawa, Canada, 9-12 July [3] Coors, V. and V. Jung, 1998, Using VRML as an Interface to the 3D data warehouse, in: Proceedings of VRML'98, New York [4] Abdul-Rahman, A., 2000. The design and implementation of two and three-dimensional triangular irregular network (TIN) based GIS. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, 250 p. [5] P. Vessen, “wireless Power transmission,” Leonardo energy; briefing paper. [6] http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/mapanalysis/Topic27/Topic27.htm [7] http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc01/professional.../papers/pap565/p565.htm [8] Deren Li, Qing Zhu Qiang, Liu Peng Xu., From 2D to 3D GIS for CYBERCITY ,State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan Universit [9] Claire Ellul, Muki Haklay. 2006 Requirements for Topology in 3D GIS [10] Billen R., S. Zlatanova, P. Mathonet and F. Boniver, 2002, The Dimensional Model: a framework to distinguish spatial relationships, in: Advances in Spatial Data handling, D.Richardson, P.van Oosterom (Eds.), Springer, Ottawa, Canada, 9-12 July, pp. 285-298 [11] Alias Abdul Rahman1, Sisi Zlatanova2, Morakot Pilouk, The 3D GIS Software Development: global efforts from researchers and vendors
29. 29. Thank you!