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Real-Time Multi Resolution
Labeling in 3D GIS
Damien Saunder
Overview
• Why labeling is important?
• 3D scene examples
• The popularity of 3D
• 12 important 3D labeling challenges
• I...
Why is labeling important?
• Labels are a critical part of any map.
• They drive cognitive association between
abstract sy...
Labels serve other functions
• Help focus attention
• Aid spatial orientation
• Denote measurements and quantities
• Estab...
Traditional labeling
• Labeling has been largely a manual
process (pre early 2000’s).
• Automated text labeling has been o...
Today
• The internet and mobile devices are
driving a new wave of automated
real-time labeling challenges.
• 3D is now com...
A collection of 3D scenes/maps
3D Cartography
Apple Maps
Here Maps
3D – New labeling problems
• 3D scenes present a surprisingly large
set of new labeling problems.
• And, these remain larg...
12 common issues
3D labeling challenges
Extremely dynamic views
• Moving observer, fixed target
• Moving observer, moving target
• Fixed observer, moving target
O...
Projections
Oblique Axonometric Globe
(view from space)
Interaction - Swiping
• User interactions change the view of the
map in rapid time.
• How do labels transition from the cu...
Interaction - Sensitivity
• The goal is to add context to the map, we
must not distract the user in doing so.
• How sensit...
Priority ranking
• Important features should get labeled
first. They should trump insignificant
features.
• What are the r...
Near realism v models of reality
• Two very different types of 3D scenes
may require different labeling logic.
• Do we app...
Billboarding
• Traditionally 3D labeling has relied
heavily on billboading.
• But when should we use it?
• How do we trans...
Drape or detach
• Labeling can applied to 3D features in a
number of ways.
• Do we drape (apply labels directly to
feature...
Distance from camera
• 3D scenes have an infinite number of
zones through the scene.
• How do we deal with this?
- Size re...
Peripheral vision
• Extremely important for orientation and
contextual awareness.
• How do we handle labels outside of our...
Performance
• We think in milliseconds. Users expect
instantaneous responses to their
actions.
• The last thing we want to...
Inspiration
• Other industries are leading the way.
• What can we learn from them?
- Motion design
- Augmented reality
- A...
Conclusion
• 3D GIS and cartography is here to stay.
• Labels are extremely important to further
understand 3D scenes*
• W...
Damien Saunder
dsaunder@esri.com
Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA
Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA
Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA
Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA
Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA
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Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA

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Presentation from IMIA (Asia Pacific) Annual Conference, Brisbane, Nov 2015

Published in: Business
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Real-Time Multi-Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS - Damien Saunder - Esri USA

  1. 1. Real-Time Multi Resolution Labeling in 3D GIS Damien Saunder
  2. 2. Overview • Why labeling is important? • 3D scene examples • The popularity of 3D • 12 important 3D labeling challenges • Inspiration • Wrap up
  3. 3. Why is labeling important? • Labels are a critical part of any map. • They drive cognitive association between abstract symbols and real-world objects and places. Mount Everest, National Geographic, 1988
  4. 4. Labels serve other functions • Help focus attention • Aid spatial orientation • Denote measurements and quantities • Establish overall look-and-feel of a map • Serve as both a functional and aesthetic role AZ London Atlas
  5. 5. Traditional labeling • Labeling has been largely a manual process (pre early 2000’s). • Automated text labeling has been on the research agenda for several decades. • Maplex introduced in 2003 (AcrGIS 9) • ArcGIS Pro supports 3D labeling*
  6. 6. Today • The internet and mobile devices are driving a new wave of automated real-time labeling challenges. • 3D is now common place in GIS. • Users expect the same experience in 3D that they have in 2D (inc. labeling)
  7. 7. A collection of 3D scenes/maps 3D Cartography
  8. 8. Apple Maps
  9. 9. Here Maps
  10. 10. 3D – New labeling problems • 3D scenes present a surprisingly large set of new labeling problems. • And, these remain largely unexplored.
  11. 11. 12 common issues 3D labeling challenges
  12. 12. Extremely dynamic views • Moving observer, fixed target • Moving observer, moving target • Fixed observer, moving target Observer (camera) Target (on map)
  13. 13. Projections Oblique Axonometric Globe (view from space)
  14. 14. Interaction - Swiping • User interactions change the view of the map in rapid time. • How do labels transition from the current view to the new view?
  15. 15. Interaction - Sensitivity • The goal is to add context to the map, we must not distract the user in doing so. • How sensitive should the labeling be to user interaction?
  16. 16. Priority ranking • Important features should get labeled first. They should trump insignificant features. • What are the rules? - Theme based - Where space permits - Does foreground always trump background? - Closest to camera - Tallest features, largest features - Occlusions
  17. 17. Near realism v models of reality • Two very different types of 3D scenes may require different labeling logic. • Do we apply the same rules? Near realism Grayscale Model
  18. 18. Billboarding • Traditionally 3D labeling has relied heavily on billboading. • But when should we use it? • How do we transition between billboarded labels and surface labels?
  19. 19. Drape or detach • Labeling can applied to 3D features in a number of ways. • Do we drape (apply labels directly to features)? • OR, detach labels from features either using leader lines or floating nearby? J. Dollner Drape Detach
  20. 20. Distance from camera • 3D scenes have an infinite number of zones through the scene. • How do we deal with this? - Size reduction - Reduce density of features - Use leader lines on the horizon - Apply transparency
  21. 21. Peripheral vision • Extremely important for orientation and contextual awareness. • How do we handle labels outside of our primary field of view? Department of Transport
  22. 22. Performance • We think in milliseconds. Users expect instantaneous responses to their actions. • The last thing we want to do is kill their 3D experience with slow labeling. • What are the performance bottlenecks/trade-offs and how might this influence the approaches we take?
  23. 23. Inspiration • Other industries are leading the way. • What can we learn from them? - Motion design - Augmented reality - Advertising - Animation JApple Perspective video, iPhone 6 Keynote Augmented reality (source unknown)
  24. 24. Conclusion • 3D GIS and cartography is here to stay. • Labels are extremely important to further understand 3D scenes* • We’re holding unbelievable CPU and GPU power in our pockets. • Real-time 3D multi-resolution labeling is expected, and is fast becoming the norm.
  25. 25. Damien Saunder dsaunder@esri.com

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