Science
Key Prep Areas <ul><li>Elements / Periodic Table </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists / Economists </li></ul><ul><li>Planets  </li...
KEY
Noble gases All the elements of Group 18, the noble gases, have full valence shells. This means they do not need to react ...
Sir C.V. Raman, (1888 – 1970) 1930 - Nobel Laureate in Physics  for work on scattering of light and Raman effect. Sir Jagd...
Srinivasa Ramanujam,(1887 – 1920):  Great Indian Mathematician , whose interest from academics at Trinity, College, Cambri...
<ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>The classification of these objects is a matter of minor controversy. Traditional...
<ul><li>The eight bodies officially categorized as planets are often further classified in several ways:  </li></ul><ul><l...
IIFT - 06 <ul><li>56.  </li></ul><ul><li>Six Indians  have been awarded Nobel Prize till date. </li></ul><ul><li>No Indian...
<ul><li>51.  </li></ul><ul><li>The two planets - Mercury and  Mars  - that move within the Earth’s orbit are known as infe...
<ul><li>52.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine may be collected by downward displacement of air, as it is two and a-half times he...
<ul><li>45.  </li></ul><ul><li>All metals are solids  at ordinary temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric acid is, when pur...
<ul><li>55.  </li></ul><ul><li>Doppler effect refers to the phenomenon whereby the  pitch of a sound appears to change  as...
Things to do <ul><li>Your regular dose of online quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>List down important scientists/ nobel laureates...
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Iift Gk3 Science

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Iift Gk3 Science

  1. 1. Science
  2. 2. Key Prep Areas <ul><li>Elements / Periodic Table </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists / Economists </li></ul><ul><li>Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Phy/Chem/Bio .. Scientific facts </li></ul><ul><li>Note : Prepping for this is a thankless job as you are not sure about what would come… so more often than not, u need to back your instinct or recollect what you might have done in school ! </li></ul>
  3. 3. KEY
  4. 4. Noble gases All the elements of Group 18, the noble gases, have full valence shells. This means they do not need to react with other elements to attain a full shell, and are therefore much less reactive than other groups. Helium is the most inert element among noble gases, since reactivity, in this group, increases with the periods: it is possible to make heavy noble gases react since they have much larger electron shells. However, their reactivity remains low in absolute terms. Halogens In Group 17, known as the halogens, elements are missing just one electron each to fill their shells. Therefore, in chemical reactions they tend to acquire electrons (the tendency to acquire electrons is called electronegativity). This property is most evident for fluorine (the most electronegative element of the whole table), and it diminishes with increasing period. As a result, all halogens form acids with hydrogen, such as hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid and hydroiodic acid, all in the form HX . Their acidity increases with higher period, for example, with regard to iodine and fluorine, since a large I- ion is more stable in solution than a small F-, there is less volume in which to disperse the charge. Transition metals For the transition metals (Groups 3 to 12), horizontal trends across periods are often important as well as vertical trends down groups; the differences between groups adjacent are usually not dramatic. Transition metal reactions often involve coordinated species. Lanthanides and actinides The chemical properties of the lanthanides (elements 57-71) and the actinides (elements 89-103) are even more similar to each other than the transition metals, and separating a mixture of these can be very difficult. This is important in the chemical purification of uranium concerning nuclear power. Classification Example
  5. 5. Sir C.V. Raman, (1888 – 1970) 1930 - Nobel Laureate in Physics for work on scattering of light and Raman effect. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858 – 1937) USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless-radio communication was Professor Jagdish Chandra Bose and not Guglielmo Marconi. Satyendranath Bose, (1894-1974) Indian Physicist , who solved one of the mysteries of quantum mechanics, showing that in the quantum world some particles are indistinguishable. His collaborations with Albert Einstein led to a new branch on statistical mechanics know commonly known as the “Einstein-Bose” statistics. Scientists / Economists
  6. 6. Srinivasa Ramanujam,(1887 – 1920): Great Indian Mathematician , whose interest from academics at Trinity, College, Cambridge, led him to collaborate there and postulate and prove well over 3,542 theorems. Amartya Sen, (b-1933): 1998 - The Nobel Prize for Economics for his redefining work on ethical welfare economics. Currently residing as Lamont University Professor Emeritus at Harvard, after stepping down from the prestigious post of Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, (1910-1995): 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physics . His many contributions to physics, on the structure and evolution of stars including rotational figures of equilibrium, stellar interiors, black holes, radiative transfer, hydromagnetic stability, stellar dynamics. Har Gobind Khorana, (b-1922 ): 1968 - Nobel Laureate in Medicine for work on interpretation of the genetic code . Currently residing as professor at MIT.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>The classification of these objects is a matter of minor controversy. Traditionally, the solar system has been divided into planets (the big bodies orbiting the Sun), their satellites (a.k.a. moons, variously sized objects orbiting the planets), asteroids (small dense objects orbiting the Sun) and comets (small icy objects with highly eccentric orbits). </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the solar system has been found to be more complicated than this would suggest: </li></ul><ul><li>there are several moons larger than Pluto and two larger than Mercury; </li></ul><ul><li>there are many small moons that are probably started out as asteroids and were only later captured by a planet; </li></ul><ul><li>comets sometimes fizzle out and become indistinguishable from asteroids; </li></ul><ul><li>the Kuiper Belt objects (including Pluto) and others like Chiron don't fit this scheme well </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth/Moon and Pluto/Charon systems are sometimes considered &quot;double planets&quot;. </li></ul>PLANETS
  8. 8. <ul><li>The eight bodies officially categorized as planets are often further classified in several ways: </li></ul><ul><li>by composition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terrestrial or rocky planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The terrestrial planets are composed primarily of rock and metal and have relatively high densities, slow rotation, solid surfaces, no rings and few satellites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jovian or gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gas planets are composed primarily of hydrogen and helium and generally have low densities, rapid rotation, deep atmospheres, rings and lots of satellites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>by history: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classical planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>known since prehistorical times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>visible to the unaided eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modern planets: Uranus, Neptune. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discovered in modern times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>visible only with optical aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by position relative to Earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inferior planets: Mercury and Venus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closer to the Sun than Earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The inferior planets show phases like the Moon's when viewed from Earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superior planets: Mars thru Neptune. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>farther from the Sun than Earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The superior planets always appear full or nearly so. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>by size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The small planets have diameters < 13000 km. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The giant planets have diameters > 48000 km. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The giant planets are sometimes also referred to as gas giants . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by position relative to the Sun: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter forms the boundary between the inner solar system and the outer solar system. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. IIFT - 06 <ul><li>56. </li></ul><ul><li>Six Indians have been awarded Nobel Prize till date. </li></ul><ul><li>No Indian has ever received Nobel Prize for Medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>c . Two Indians have received Nobel Prize for Literature. </li></ul><ul><li>d. S. Chandrashekar was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics. </li></ul>Ans. D
  10. 10. <ul><li>51. </li></ul><ul><li>The two planets - Mercury and Mars - that move within the Earth’s orbit are known as inferior planets. </li></ul><ul><li>b. All planets can be seen at night. </li></ul><ul><li>c. An ion is an atom or molecule that has become electrically charged by the loss or gain of one or </li></ul><ul><li>more electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Human eyelids open and close about 20 times a minute. </li></ul>IIFT ‘06 Ans. C,D
  11. 11. <ul><li>52. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine may be collected by downward displacement of air, as it is two and a-half times heavier than air, or it may be collected over warm water. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas, easily condensed to a liquid; it does not burn in air, but many substances burn in it, forming chlorides, just as bodies burning in oxygen form oxides. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Because of combining with free hydrogen, chlorine is not able to separate hydrogen from some of its compounds and to combine with it. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Chlorine bleaches mineral colouring matters. </li></ul>IIFT ‘06 Ans. A,B,D
  12. 12. <ul><li>45. </li></ul><ul><li>All metals are solids at ordinary temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric acid is, when pure, a colourful liquid, possessing great oxidising power, turning yellow the </li></ul><ul><li>skin and other organic bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Ammonia gas may be synthetically prepared from its elements by passing the silent electric discharge through a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>d. The composition of the air by weight maybe shown by passing a given volume of pure dry air over a weighed quantity of heated metallic copper, the increase in weight showing the weight of oxygen present in the volume of air, the nitrogen also being collected and the weight ascertained </li></ul>IIFT ‘06 Ans. B,C,D
  13. 13. <ul><li>55. </li></ul><ul><li>Doppler effect refers to the phenomenon whereby the pitch of a sound appears to change as the object moves away. </li></ul><ul><li>b. The equation V = d × d, where V is the volume and d is the diameter of the sphere is dimensionally correct. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Bernoulli’s principle states that the pressure of a fluid is inversely proportional to its volume. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Northern lights are caused by energetic particles released from the sun reacting in earth’s atmosphere. </li></ul>IIFT ‘06 Ans. D
  14. 14. Things to do <ul><li>Your regular dose of online quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>List down important scientists/ nobel laureates of Indian origin </li></ul>

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