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How the different elements on the periodic
table were formed?
● Big Bang Theory
● Singularity, Inflation, Nucleosynthesis and
Recombination
● Singularity is a one-dimensional point which
contains a huge mass in an infinitely small
space, where density and gravity become infinite
and space-time curves infinitely, and where the
laws of physics as we know them cease to
operate.
● The basic homogeneity in distribution of matter
in the universe was established as a
consequence of the first phase of inflation.
● Nucleosynthesis was the
nuclear fusion and the
formation of new nuclei
actions in the early stages of
development of the universe.
● Recombination - the
formation of the capture of
free electrons by the cations
in a plasma.
GUESS MY NYM
Students will answer the following question
to reveal the acronym.
GUESS MY NYM
- first letter of your teacher’s name now.
- always chase Jerry
- symbol of Iodine
- symbol of Carbon
- feels nothing
- emergency room
A
TOM
I
C
NUMB
ER
GUESS MY NYM
- phosphorus’ symbol
- symbol of argon
- Titanium’s symbol
- symbol of chlorine
- the second letter of your Physical
Science teacher’s name
P
Ar
Ti
Cl
E
GUESS MY NYM
- know that you’re wrong for me 🎶
- why don’t you say ___? 🎶
- not bottom
- symbol of Einsteinium
I
SO
TOP
ES
Concept Of Atomic
Number Led To The
Synthesis Of New
Elements In The
Laboratory
1st Quarter Week 2
Objectives:
At the end of the session you will be able to;
• explain how the concept of atomic number led to
the synthesis of new elements in the laboratory;
• identify the different elements formed after the
process of synthesis;
• realize the importance of the atomic number in
identifying the new element’s identity in the
periodic table.
Key Points
The atomic
number is the
number of protons
(positively charged
particles) in an
atom.
Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys Moseley
was an English physicist who
demonstrated that the atomic
number, the number of protons
in an atom, determines most of
the properties of an element.
01 02
In 1919, Ernest
Rutherford successfully
carried out a nuclear
transmutation reaction a
process of transforming
one element or isotope
into another element.
03
Key Points
In 1925, there were four
vacancies in the
periodic table
corresponding to the
atomic numbers 43, 61,
85, and 87. Elements
with atomic numbers 43
and 85 were synthesized
A particle accelerator is a
device that is used to speed
up the protons to overcome
the repulsion between the
protons and the target
atomic nuclei by using
magnetic and electrical
fields. It is used to
04 05
Elements with atomic
numbers greater than 92
(atomic number of
uranium) are called trans
uranium elements. They
were discovered in the
laboratory using nuclear
reactors or particle
06
Dmitri
Mendeleev
● Father of Periodic Table
● Classify the elements based
on their atomic weight
● Physical and chemical
properties
● As luster, physical state,
reactivity to water, and
Activity: Making Your Own Periodic Table
Make your own periodic table using the hypothetical elements that
are given in the clues. Explain the word/s that will be formed if you
arrange the symbols of the elements correctly.
a. P and Pr both have one electron each. Pr has a bigger atomic
size.
b. Od, Ri, and E are in the same series as P, C, and I. In
terms of atomic size, P is the biggest while C is the smallest.
E is a metal while I is a non-metal. Od is smaller than Ri in
atomic size.
c. O has a bigger atomic size than E in the same group. Y is
also a bigger atom than C in the same group. R is more
nonmetallic than Pe but more metallic than Ti.
GROUP ACTIVITY: YOUR GROUP’S OWN
PERIODIC TABLE
Henry Moseley
• English physicist whose experiment
demonstrated that the major
properties of an element
• atomic number not by the atomic
weight
• atomic number and the charge of the
atomic nucleus.
• a researcher at Rutherford’s
laboratory.
Henry Moseley
• In 1913, Moseley used Rutherford’s work to
advance the understanding of the elements
and solve the problem with Mendeleev’s
periodic table.
• release x-rays at unique frequencies
• frequency increased by a certain amount when
the “positive charge” of the chosen element
was higher.
• hypothesis: that the elements’ atomic number,
or place in the periodic table, was uniquely tied
to their “positive charge”, or the number of
protons they had.
• x-ray spectroscopy
What is an X-ray
Spectroscopy?
• is a technique that detects
and measures photons, or
particles of light, that have
wavelengths in the X-ray portion
of the electromagnetic
spectrum. It's used to help
scientists understand the
chemical and elemental
properties of an object.
Discovery of
Nuclear
Transmutation
Ernest Rutherford
• Father of Nuclear Physics
• In 1919, Ernest Rutherford
successfully carried out a nuclear
transmutation reaction
• A reaction involving the
transformation of one element or
isotope into another element
The first nuclide to be prepared
by artificial means was an isotope
of oxygen, 17O. It was made by
Ernest Rutherford in 1919 by
bombarding nitrogen atoms with
α particles
James Chadwick
• discovered the neutron in
1932, as a previously
unknown neutral particle
produced along with 12C by
the nuclear reaction
between 9Be and 4He:
• The first element to be prepared
that does not occur naturally on
the earth, technetium, was
created by bombardment of
molybdenum by deuterons (heavy
hydrogen, H12), by Emilio Segre
and Carlo Perrier in 1937:
widely used for medical diagnostic
studies. Several chemical forms are used
to image different parts of the body.
Technetium is a remarkable corrosion
inhibitor for steel, and adding very small
amounts can provide excellent protection.
• The first controlled nuclear chain reaction was
carried out in a reactor at the University of
Chicago in 1942. One of the many reactions
involved was:
The Discovery
of Missing
Elements
● 1925, there were four
vacancies in the periodic
table
● Particle accelerators
● It is a device that is used
to speed up the protons
to overcome the repulsion
between the protons and
the target atomic nuclei
by using magnetic and
electrical fields.
The Discovery of
Missing Elements
● In 1937, American physicist
Ernest Lawrence synthesized
element with atomic number 43
using a linear particle accelerator
● molybdenum (Z=42)
● Technetium (Tc)
● "technêtos" meaning “artificial”
● Tc was the first man-made
element.
● The bombarding of Mo with
deuteron formed technicium
which is the first artificially made
element.
● 1940, Dale Corson, K. Mackenzie,
and Emilio Segre
● They discovered element with atomic
number 85
● A cyclotron is a particle accelerator
that uses alternating electric field to
accelerate particles that move in a
spiral path in the presence of a
magnetic field.
● Element 85 was named astatine from
the Greek word “astatos” meaning
unstable.
The Discovery of Astatine
Discovery of element 61 and 87
• Discovered through
studies in radioactivity
• Element-61 (Promethium)
was discovered as a decay
product of the fission of
uranium
• Element-87 (Francium)
was discovered as a
breakdown product of
uranium.
The Synthesis of the Elements
• Device called
cyclotron paved the
way for transmuting
one element into
another artificially
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
 The oldest stars in the Galaxy are deficient in the
abundance of elements heavier than Helium (but show the
predicted amount of He)
 The current record holder has Fe/H about 130,000 times
smaller than the solar value.
 Not quite down to Big Bang abundances, but we are
getting pretty close and still looking.
The Synthesis of the Elements
Chemical Evolution
 Low-mass stars synthesize `new’ He, C, O during the
main sequence, RGB (red-giant branch), HB
(horizontal branch) and AGB (Asymptotic Giant
Branch)phases.
 These freshly minted elements are brought to the
surface via convection and redistributed via stellar
winds and planetary nebulae into the interstellar
medium to be incorporated into later generations of
stars.
The Synthesis of the Elements
Chemical Evolution II
 For more massive stars, `equilibrium’ fusion
reactions produce elements all the way up to
Fe.
 Freshly made elements are delivered via stellar
winds or, sometimes more spectacularly via
supernova explosions
The Synthesis of the Elements
Chemical Evolution III
What about the trans-Fe elements?
 Equilibrium fusion reactions of light elements don’t
proceed past Fe because of Fe’s location at the peak
of the curve of binding energy.
 However, in certain circumstances, supernovae for
example, nonequilibrium reactions can build
elements beyond Fe in the Periodic Table. Many of
these are radioactive, but some are stable.
The Synthesis of the Elements
Neutron Capture Elements
 There are two principal paths to building the
elements heavier than Fe. Both use the
addition of neutrons to existing `seed’ nuclei
(neutrons have no charge so are much easier
to add to positively charged nuclei).
S-process (slow addition of neutrons)
R-process (rapid addition of neutrons)
The S-Process
 The S-process stands for the Slow addition of neutrons to nuclei. The
addition of a no produces heavier isotope of a particular element. However, if an
electron is emitted (this is called beta-decay), the nucleus moves one step up
the periodic table.
 `Slow’ here means that rate of no captures is low compared to the beta-
decay rate.
The s-process acting in the range from Ag to Sb.
Here a neutron changed into
a proton by emitting an
electron
 The S-process can
produce elements up to
#83 - Bismuth. There are
peaks in the Solar
System abundance of
heavy elements at 38Sr,
56Ba and 82Pb. These
are easily understood in
the context of the S-
process and `magic’
numbers of neutrons.
The R-Process
 The R-process is the Rapid addition of neutrons to existing nuclei. Rapid here
means that many neutrons are added before a beta-decay occurs.
 First build up a VERY heavy isotope, then, as beta-decays occur, you march up
in atomic number and produce the REALLY HEAVY STUFF.
 For this to happen, a big burst of neutrons is needed. The most promising place
with the right conditions is in a SNII explosion right above the collapsed core.
 We see an overabundance of R-process elements in the oldest stars. As the
early chemical enrichment of the Galaxy was through SNII, this is evidence of
SNII as the source of r-process elements.
 If we look at the Crab Nebula or other SNII remnants we don’t see r-process
elements.
The R-Process
The Transuranic Elements
• In the 1930s, the heaviest element known was
uranium, with an atomic number 92.
• Early in 1940, Edwin McMillan proved that an
element having an atomic number 93 could
be created.
• He used a particle accelerator to bombard
uranium with neutrons and created an element
with an atomic number 93 which he named
neptunium.
The Transuranic Elements
• At the end of 1940, element 94
was synthesized by Seaborg,
McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl.
• They bombarded uranium with
deuterons (particles composed
of a proton and a neutron) in a
cyclotron. Element-94 was
named plutonium.
Stellar nucleosynthesis
• This is the process by which elements are created
within stars by combining the protons and neutrons
together from the nuclei of lighter elements.
• Fusion inside stars transforms hydrogen into helium,
heat, and radiation. Heavier elements are created in
different types of stars as they die or explode.
Superheavy Elements
The Superheavy Elements
Following are the equations of several nuclear reactions that have
important roles in the history of nuclear chemistry:
• The first naturally occurring unstable element that was isolated,
polonium, was discovered by the Polish scientist Marie Curie and her
husband Pierre in 1898. It decays, emitting particles:
• Superheavy elements are elements with atomic numbers beyond 103.
These are produced by bombarding heavy nuclear targets with accelerated
heavy projectiles.
GROUP ACTIVITY 1.2: EQUATE ME
• Write the nuclear reactions involved in the
synthesis of each of the following element:
a. Curium (Z = 96) was formed by reacting Pu-239
with alpha particles.
b. Mendelevium (Z = 101) was formed by reacting
Es-253 with alpha particles.
Activity – Group 1
Curium (Z = 96) was formed by reacting Pu-
239 with alpha particles.
Pu +
94
239
He
2
4
Cm
96
243
Activity – Group 2
Mendelevium (Z = 101) was formed by
reacting Es-253 with alpha particles.
Es +
99
253
He
2
4
Md
101
257
ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. It was created by bombardment of molybdenum by
deuterons (heavy
hydrogen, 2 1H)), by Emilio Segre and Carlo Perrier in
1937.
a. Oxygen
b. Technetium
c. Helium
d. Uranium
ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE
2. He successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation
reaction, a process of transforming one element or isotope
into another element.
a. James Chadwick
b. Dmitri Mendeleev
c. Henry Moseley
d. Ernest Rutherford
ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE
3. This is known as the origin of light elements.
a. Stellar Nucleosynthesis
b. R-Process
c. Primordial Nucleosynthesis
d. Supernova Nucleosynthesis
ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE
4.He created a classification of elements based on their
atomic weight.
a. Ernest Rutherford
b. Robert Millikan
c. John Dalton
d. Dmitri Mendeleev
ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE
5.These are elements with atomic numbers beyond 103.
a. Superheavy elements
b. Transition element
c. Gases elements
d. Halogens
ASSIGNMENT:
Research on the latest instruments used in
preparing new elements in the laboratory. What were the
instruments used in preparing the newest four elements,
Nihonium, Moscovium, Tennessine, and Oganesson?

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conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx

  • 1. How the different elements on the periodic table were formed? ● Big Bang Theory ● Singularity, Inflation, Nucleosynthesis and Recombination ● Singularity is a one-dimensional point which contains a huge mass in an infinitely small space, where density and gravity become infinite and space-time curves infinitely, and where the laws of physics as we know them cease to operate. ● The basic homogeneity in distribution of matter in the universe was established as a consequence of the first phase of inflation.
  • 2. ● Nucleosynthesis was the nuclear fusion and the formation of new nuclei actions in the early stages of development of the universe. ● Recombination - the formation of the capture of free electrons by the cations in a plasma.
  • 3. GUESS MY NYM Students will answer the following question to reveal the acronym.
  • 4. GUESS MY NYM - first letter of your teacher’s name now. - always chase Jerry - symbol of Iodine - symbol of Carbon - feels nothing - emergency room A TOM I C NUMB ER
  • 5. GUESS MY NYM - phosphorus’ symbol - symbol of argon - Titanium’s symbol - symbol of chlorine - the second letter of your Physical Science teacher’s name P Ar Ti Cl E
  • 6. GUESS MY NYM - know that you’re wrong for me 🎶 - why don’t you say ___? 🎶 - not bottom - symbol of Einsteinium I SO TOP ES
  • 7. Concept Of Atomic Number Led To The Synthesis Of New Elements In The Laboratory 1st Quarter Week 2
  • 8. Objectives: At the end of the session you will be able to; • explain how the concept of atomic number led to the synthesis of new elements in the laboratory; • identify the different elements formed after the process of synthesis; • realize the importance of the atomic number in identifying the new element’s identity in the periodic table.
  • 9. Key Points The atomic number is the number of protons (positively charged particles) in an atom. Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys Moseley was an English physicist who demonstrated that the atomic number, the number of protons in an atom, determines most of the properties of an element. 01 02 In 1919, Ernest Rutherford successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation reaction a process of transforming one element or isotope into another element. 03
  • 10. Key Points In 1925, there were four vacancies in the periodic table corresponding to the atomic numbers 43, 61, 85, and 87. Elements with atomic numbers 43 and 85 were synthesized A particle accelerator is a device that is used to speed up the protons to overcome the repulsion between the protons and the target atomic nuclei by using magnetic and electrical fields. It is used to 04 05 Elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (atomic number of uranium) are called trans uranium elements. They were discovered in the laboratory using nuclear reactors or particle 06
  • 11. Dmitri Mendeleev ● Father of Periodic Table ● Classify the elements based on their atomic weight ● Physical and chemical properties ● As luster, physical state, reactivity to water, and
  • 12.
  • 13. Activity: Making Your Own Periodic Table Make your own periodic table using the hypothetical elements that are given in the clues. Explain the word/s that will be formed if you arrange the symbols of the elements correctly. a. P and Pr both have one electron each. Pr has a bigger atomic size. b. Od, Ri, and E are in the same series as P, C, and I. In terms of atomic size, P is the biggest while C is the smallest. E is a metal while I is a non-metal. Od is smaller than Ri in atomic size. c. O has a bigger atomic size than E in the same group. Y is also a bigger atom than C in the same group. R is more nonmetallic than Pe but more metallic than Ti.
  • 14. GROUP ACTIVITY: YOUR GROUP’S OWN PERIODIC TABLE
  • 15. Henry Moseley • English physicist whose experiment demonstrated that the major properties of an element • atomic number not by the atomic weight • atomic number and the charge of the atomic nucleus. • a researcher at Rutherford’s laboratory.
  • 16. Henry Moseley • In 1913, Moseley used Rutherford’s work to advance the understanding of the elements and solve the problem with Mendeleev’s periodic table. • release x-rays at unique frequencies • frequency increased by a certain amount when the “positive charge” of the chosen element was higher. • hypothesis: that the elements’ atomic number, or place in the periodic table, was uniquely tied to their “positive charge”, or the number of protons they had. • x-ray spectroscopy
  • 17. What is an X-ray Spectroscopy? • is a technique that detects and measures photons, or particles of light, that have wavelengths in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It's used to help scientists understand the chemical and elemental properties of an object.
  • 19. Ernest Rutherford • Father of Nuclear Physics • In 1919, Ernest Rutherford successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation reaction • A reaction involving the transformation of one element or isotope into another element
  • 20. The first nuclide to be prepared by artificial means was an isotope of oxygen, 17O. It was made by Ernest Rutherford in 1919 by bombarding nitrogen atoms with α particles
  • 21. James Chadwick • discovered the neutron in 1932, as a previously unknown neutral particle produced along with 12C by the nuclear reaction between 9Be and 4He:
  • 22. • The first element to be prepared that does not occur naturally on the earth, technetium, was created by bombardment of molybdenum by deuterons (heavy hydrogen, H12), by Emilio Segre and Carlo Perrier in 1937: widely used for medical diagnostic studies. Several chemical forms are used to image different parts of the body. Technetium is a remarkable corrosion inhibitor for steel, and adding very small amounts can provide excellent protection. • The first controlled nuclear chain reaction was carried out in a reactor at the University of Chicago in 1942. One of the many reactions involved was:
  • 23. The Discovery of Missing Elements ● 1925, there were four vacancies in the periodic table ● Particle accelerators ● It is a device that is used to speed up the protons to overcome the repulsion between the protons and the target atomic nuclei by using magnetic and electrical fields.
  • 24. The Discovery of Missing Elements ● In 1937, American physicist Ernest Lawrence synthesized element with atomic number 43 using a linear particle accelerator ● molybdenum (Z=42) ● Technetium (Tc) ● "technêtos" meaning “artificial” ● Tc was the first man-made element. ● The bombarding of Mo with deuteron formed technicium which is the first artificially made element.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. ● 1940, Dale Corson, K. Mackenzie, and Emilio Segre ● They discovered element with atomic number 85 ● A cyclotron is a particle accelerator that uses alternating electric field to accelerate particles that move in a spiral path in the presence of a magnetic field. ● Element 85 was named astatine from the Greek word “astatos” meaning unstable. The Discovery of Astatine
  • 28. Discovery of element 61 and 87 • Discovered through studies in radioactivity • Element-61 (Promethium) was discovered as a decay product of the fission of uranium • Element-87 (Francium) was discovered as a breakdown product of uranium.
  • 29. The Synthesis of the Elements • Device called cyclotron paved the way for transmuting one element into another artificially
  • 30. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  The oldest stars in the Galaxy are deficient in the abundance of elements heavier than Helium (but show the predicted amount of He)  The current record holder has Fe/H about 130,000 times smaller than the solar value.  Not quite down to Big Bang abundances, but we are getting pretty close and still looking. The Synthesis of the Elements
  • 31. Chemical Evolution  Low-mass stars synthesize `new’ He, C, O during the main sequence, RGB (red-giant branch), HB (horizontal branch) and AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch)phases.  These freshly minted elements are brought to the surface via convection and redistributed via stellar winds and planetary nebulae into the interstellar medium to be incorporated into later generations of stars. The Synthesis of the Elements
  • 32. Chemical Evolution II  For more massive stars, `equilibrium’ fusion reactions produce elements all the way up to Fe.  Freshly made elements are delivered via stellar winds or, sometimes more spectacularly via supernova explosions The Synthesis of the Elements
  • 33. Chemical Evolution III What about the trans-Fe elements?  Equilibrium fusion reactions of light elements don’t proceed past Fe because of Fe’s location at the peak of the curve of binding energy.  However, in certain circumstances, supernovae for example, nonequilibrium reactions can build elements beyond Fe in the Periodic Table. Many of these are radioactive, but some are stable. The Synthesis of the Elements
  • 34. Neutron Capture Elements  There are two principal paths to building the elements heavier than Fe. Both use the addition of neutrons to existing `seed’ nuclei (neutrons have no charge so are much easier to add to positively charged nuclei). S-process (slow addition of neutrons) R-process (rapid addition of neutrons)
  • 35. The S-Process  The S-process stands for the Slow addition of neutrons to nuclei. The addition of a no produces heavier isotope of a particular element. However, if an electron is emitted (this is called beta-decay), the nucleus moves one step up the periodic table.  `Slow’ here means that rate of no captures is low compared to the beta- decay rate. The s-process acting in the range from Ag to Sb. Here a neutron changed into a proton by emitting an electron  The S-process can produce elements up to #83 - Bismuth. There are peaks in the Solar System abundance of heavy elements at 38Sr, 56Ba and 82Pb. These are easily understood in the context of the S- process and `magic’ numbers of neutrons.
  • 36. The R-Process  The R-process is the Rapid addition of neutrons to existing nuclei. Rapid here means that many neutrons are added before a beta-decay occurs.  First build up a VERY heavy isotope, then, as beta-decays occur, you march up in atomic number and produce the REALLY HEAVY STUFF.  For this to happen, a big burst of neutrons is needed. The most promising place with the right conditions is in a SNII explosion right above the collapsed core.  We see an overabundance of R-process elements in the oldest stars. As the early chemical enrichment of the Galaxy was through SNII, this is evidence of SNII as the source of r-process elements.  If we look at the Crab Nebula or other SNII remnants we don’t see r-process elements.
  • 38. The Transuranic Elements • In the 1930s, the heaviest element known was uranium, with an atomic number 92. • Early in 1940, Edwin McMillan proved that an element having an atomic number 93 could be created. • He used a particle accelerator to bombard uranium with neutrons and created an element with an atomic number 93 which he named neptunium.
  • 39. The Transuranic Elements • At the end of 1940, element 94 was synthesized by Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl. • They bombarded uranium with deuterons (particles composed of a proton and a neutron) in a cyclotron. Element-94 was named plutonium.
  • 40. Stellar nucleosynthesis • This is the process by which elements are created within stars by combining the protons and neutrons together from the nuclei of lighter elements. • Fusion inside stars transforms hydrogen into helium, heat, and radiation. Heavier elements are created in different types of stars as they die or explode.
  • 41. Superheavy Elements The Superheavy Elements Following are the equations of several nuclear reactions that have important roles in the history of nuclear chemistry: • The first naturally occurring unstable element that was isolated, polonium, was discovered by the Polish scientist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre in 1898. It decays, emitting particles: • Superheavy elements are elements with atomic numbers beyond 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nuclear targets with accelerated heavy projectiles.
  • 42. GROUP ACTIVITY 1.2: EQUATE ME • Write the nuclear reactions involved in the synthesis of each of the following element: a. Curium (Z = 96) was formed by reacting Pu-239 with alpha particles. b. Mendelevium (Z = 101) was formed by reacting Es-253 with alpha particles.
  • 43. Activity – Group 1 Curium (Z = 96) was formed by reacting Pu- 239 with alpha particles. Pu + 94 239 He 2 4 Cm 96 243
  • 44. Activity – Group 2 Mendelevium (Z = 101) was formed by reacting Es-253 with alpha particles. Es + 99 253 He 2 4 Md 101 257
  • 45. ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. It was created by bombardment of molybdenum by deuterons (heavy hydrogen, 2 1H)), by Emilio Segre and Carlo Perrier in 1937. a. Oxygen b. Technetium c. Helium d. Uranium
  • 46. ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE 2. He successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation reaction, a process of transforming one element or isotope into another element. a. James Chadwick b. Dmitri Mendeleev c. Henry Moseley d. Ernest Rutherford
  • 47. ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE 3. This is known as the origin of light elements. a. Stellar Nucleosynthesis b. R-Process c. Primordial Nucleosynthesis d. Supernova Nucleosynthesis
  • 48. ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE 4.He created a classification of elements based on their atomic weight. a. Ernest Rutherford b. Robert Millikan c. John Dalton d. Dmitri Mendeleev
  • 49. ASSESSMENT: MULTIPLE CHOICE 5.These are elements with atomic numbers beyond 103. a. Superheavy elements b. Transition element c. Gases elements d. Halogens
  • 50. ASSIGNMENT: Research on the latest instruments used in preparing new elements in the laboratory. What were the instruments used in preparing the newest four elements, Nihonium, Moscovium, Tennessine, and Oganesson?

Editor's Notes

  1. Elements are made up of tiny particles, the neutron, proton and electron. H and Helium are the elements that exist in the early beginning. Early in the Big Bang, it was a tiny elementary particle. As the Universe expanded and cooled, there was a period of proton-proton chain reaction wherein protons were fuse into Helium. The Universe ran into a problem. Red giant cores get past this via the Triple-Alpha process, but the Universe expands right through this possibility and the density/temperature are quickly too low to synthesis any additional elements. You learned earlier how all matter in the universe is made from tiny building blocks called atoms. All modern scientists accept the concept of the atom, but when the concept of the atom was first proposed about 2,500 years ago, ancient philosophers laughed at the idea. It has always been difficult to convince people of the existence of things that are too small to see. We will spend some time considering the evidence (observations) that convince scientists of the existence of atoms. There is what we call Big Bang Theory that has some key stages: Singularity, Inflation, Nucleosynthesis and Recombination: Let us differentiate them. Singularity is a one-dimensional point which contains a huge mass in an infinitely small space, where density and gravity become infinite and space-time curves infinitely, and where the laws of physics as we know them cease to operate. The basic homogeneity in distribution of matter in the universe was established as a consequence of the first phase of inflation. Nucleosynthesis was the nuclear fusion and the formation of new nuclei actions in the early stages of development of the universe. Recombination - the formation of the capture of free electrons by the cations in a plasma.
  2. Today, I challenge you all that at the end of the lesson, you will be able to: explain how the concept of atomic number led to the synthesis of new elements in the laboratory; identify the different elements formed after the process of synthesis; realize the importance of the atomic number in identifying the new elements identity in the periodic table.
  3. Dmitri Mendeleev created a classification of elements based on their atomic weight. He found that organizing the elements at the time by their calculated weight demonstrated a periodic pattern of both physical and chemical properties, such as luster, physical state, reactivity to water, and others.
  4. For example, H has an atomic mass of 1.00794 amu, which makes hydrogen the lightest element on the periodic table. Hydrogen, H, was named by Lavoisier and is the most abundant element on the periodic table. It is followed by He, Li, Be and so on and so forth because atomic weight is used to arrange elements from lightest to heaviest.
  5. hypothetical elements - chemical element which is expected to exist but has not yet been discovered.
  6. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  7. By the way, He is Henry Moseley. He was an English physicist whose experiment demonstrated that the major properties of an element are determined by the atomic number, not by the atomic weight, and firmly established the relationship between atomic number and the charge of the atomic nucleus.
  8. In 1913, Moseley used Rutherford’s work to advance the understanding of the elements and solve the problem with Mendeleev’s periodic table. Moseley noticed that shooting electrons at elements caused them to release x-rays at unique frequencies. He also noticed that the frequency increased by a certain amount when the “positive charge” of the chosen element was higher. By arranging the elements according to the square root of the frequency they emitted, he was able to draw out an arrangement of elements that more correctly predicted periodic trends. Mention the experimental evidence he gave to an existing hypothesis: that the elements’ atomic number, or place in the periodic table, was uniquely tied to their “positive charge”, or the number of protons they had. This discovery allowed for a better arrangement of the periodic table and predicted elements that were not yet discovered. His method of identifying elements by shooting electrons and looking at x-rays became a very useful tool in characterizing elements and is now called x-ray spectroscopy.
  9. He used X-ray spectroscopy to determine the atomic number of an element. He bombarded a beam of electrons to different elements and measured their X-ray spectral lines. His results clearly showed that frequency of the X-rays given off by an element was mathematically related to the position of that element in the Periodic table. The frequency is proportional to the charge of the nucleus, or the atomic number.
  10. In 1919, Ernest Rutherford successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation reaction — a reaction involving the transformation of one element or isotope into another element. The first nuclide to be prepared by artificial means was an isotope of oxygen, 17O. It was made by Ernest Rutherford in 1919 by bombarding nitrogen atoms with α particles:
  11. In 1919, Ernest Rutherford successfully carried out a nuclear transmutation reaction — a reaction involving the transformation of one element or isotope into another element. The first nuclide to be prepared by artificial means was an isotope of oxygen, 17O. It was made by Ernest Rutherford in 1919 by bombarding nitrogen atoms with α particles: However, both alpha particles and atomic nuclei are positively charged, so they tend to repel each other. Therefore, instead of using fast-moving alpha particles in synthesizing new elements, atomic nuclei are often bombarded with neutrons (neutral particles) in particle accelerators.
  12. This was Deming's original medium-long form of the Periodic Table dating from 1925.
  13. In 1940, Dale Corson, K. Mackenzie, and Emilio Segre discovered element with atomic number 85. They bombarded atoms of bismuth with fastmoving alpha particles in a cyclotron. A cyclotron is a particle accelerator that uses alternating electric field to accelerate particles that move in a spiral path in the presence of a magnetic field. Element-85 was named astatine from the Greek word “astatos” meaning unstable.
  14. The two other elements with atomic numbers 61 and 87 were discovered through studies in radioactivity. Element-61 (Promethium) was discovered as a decay product of the fission of uranium while element-87 (Francium) was discovered as a breakdown product of uranium. Why do you think francium is considered as the most expensive element? The most expensive natural element is francium. Although francium occurs naturally, it decays so quickly that it cannot be collected for use. Only a few atoms of francium have been produced commercially, so if you wanted to produce 100 grams of francium, you could expect to pay a few billion U.S. dollars for it.
  15. The Synthesis of the Elements The invention of the device called cyclotron paved the way for transmuting one element into another artificially. The high-energy particles that are produced from the cyclotron upon hitting heavy target nuclei produce heavier nuclei. The Universe ran into the Be problem. Red giant cores get past this via the Triple-Alpha process, but the Universe expands right through this possibility and the density/temperature are quickly too low to synthesis any additional elements.
  16. The oldest stars in the Galaxy are deficient in the abundance of elements heavier than Helium (but show the predicted amount of He) The current record holder has Fe/H about 130,000 times smaller than the solar value. Not quite down to Big Bang abundances, but we are getting pretty close and still looking.
  17. The oldest stars in the Galaxy are deficient in the abundance of elements heavier than Helium (but show the predicted amount of He) The current record holder has Fe/H about 130,000 times smaller than the solar value. Not quite down to Big Bang abundances, but we are getting pretty close and still looking.
  18. Elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (atomic number of uranium) are called trans uranium elements.
  19. Elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (atomic number of uranium) are called transuranium elements. Hence, neptunium and plutonium are both transuranium elements. They are unstable and decay radioactively into other elements. All these elements were discovered in the laboratory as artificially generated synthetic elements. They are prepared using nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. In the next slide, you will learn the nuclear reactions involved in the synthesis of these transuranium elements.
  20. For our activity let us try to write a nuclear reaction involved in the synthesis of the elements named as follows:
  21. For the first equation, ano ang element ang nasynthesized at ano ang mga element na reactants? Tama. (click to proceed) So we write down Curium as the product and Plutonium and the alpha particle (which is the helium nucleus) as the reactants. Ayon sa equation ano ang atomic number ng Curium? Tama. It is 96. So we write down 96 for Curium’s atomic number and check on the periodic table kung ano ang atomic number ng Plutonium at ng Helium. What is the atomic number of Plutonium and Helium? Yes. 94 and 2. (click to proceed) From there, we can see that the atomic number in the reactant side and the product side are balanced. Now we balance the atomic masses. Ano ang mass ng plutonium ayon sa equation? Correct. 239. And then if we check on the periodic table kung ano ang mass ng Helium we will find that it is 4. So we add 239 and 4, and that makes the mass of curium as 243. And now everything is balanced which makes the equation correct.
  22. For the second equation, ano ang element ang nasynthesized at ano ang mga element na reactants? Tama. (click to proceed) So we write down Mendelevium as the product and Esteinium and the alpha particle (which is the helium nucleus) as the reactants. Ayon sa equation ano ang atomic number ng Mendelevium? Tama. It is 101. So we write down 101 for Mendelevium’s atomic number and check on the periodic table kung ano ang atomic number ng Einsteinium at ng Helium. What is the atomic number of Einsteinium and Helium? Yes. 99 and 2. (click to proceed) From there, we can see that the atomic number in the reactant side and the product side are balanced. Now we balance the atomic masses. Ano ang mass ng Einsteinium ayon sa equation? Correct. 253. And then if we check on the periodic table kung ano ang mass ng Helium we will find that it is 4. So we add 253 and 4, and that makes the mass of Mendelivium as 257. And now everything is balanced which makes the equation correct.
  23. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  24. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  25. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  26. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  27. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.
  28. SuperHEAVY elements are artificially prepared elements with atomic numbers higher than 103. These are produced by bombarding heavy nucleus with accelerated heavy projectiles such as the one shown in the slide. In the example, we have bismuth209 bombarded with a high speed projectile of Chromium54, synthesizing Bohrium-261 with 2 neutrons as a by-product.