Earth Science An overview of the Solar System
Geocentric Theory  <ul><li>Essentially the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.  </li></ul><ul><li>The ide...
 
Problems with Geocentric <ul><li>If Earth was in a fixed position: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then celestial bodies would move ...
Heliocentric Theory <ul><li>Polish cleric and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus spent 25 years studying the solar system.  </...
 
Galileo <ul><li>Galileo Galilei studied the work of Copernicus, and found evidence that supported his findings. </li></ul>...
Adding to Copernicus <ul><li>Tycho Brahe spent 25 years documenting planetary movement and positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Jo...
Cont. <ul><li>Kepler’s 2 nd  and 3 rd  Laws mathmatically calculate orbital length and patterns of motion. </li></ul>
Gravity The mechanisms of Newton's law of universal gravitation; a point mass  m 1 attracts another point mass  m 2 by a f...
General relativity <ul><li>General relativity  or the  general theory of relativity  is the geometric theory of gravitatio...
<ul><li>Given the universality of free fall, there is no observable distinction between inertial motion and motion under t...
The Sun <ul><li>The sun is the biggest, brightest, and hottest object in the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is an...
Mercury <ul><li>Mercury is solid and is covered with craters. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury has almost no atmosphere. </li></u...
Venus <ul><li>Venus is the sixth largest planet. It’s about three-fourths the size of earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The surface...
Earth <ul><li>Earth is the fifth largest planet and the third from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid covers 71 percent of ...
EARTH <ul><li>Age:  At least 4 1/2 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>Mass:  6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 (6.6 sextillion) t...
Moon
Mars <ul><li>Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Mars has a thin atmosphere that contains mostly car...
Moons of Mars <ul><li>Phobos </li></ul><ul><li>Deimos </li></ul>
Jupiter
Jupiter’s Red Spot <ul><li>The Great Red Spot, a huge storm of swirling gas that has lasted for hundreds of years. </li></...
Moons of Jupiter <ul><li>Jupiter has four large Galilean moons, twelve smaller named moons and twenty-three more recently ...
Io <ul><ul><li>Io is the fifth moon of Jupiter. It’s the third largest of Jupiter’s moons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Io h...
Europa <ul><li>Europa is the sixth of Jupiter’s moons and is the fourth largest. </li></ul><ul><li>It is slightly smaller ...
Ganymede <ul><li>Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter’s known satellites. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganymede has extensi...
Callisto <ul><li>Callisto is the eighth of Jupiter’s known satellites and the second largest. </li></ul><ul><li>Callisto h...
Saturn <ul><li>Saturn is the second largest planet and the sixth from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn is made of materia...
Rings of Saturn <ul><li>Saturn’s rings are not solid; they are composed of small countless particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Uranus <ul><li>Uranus is the third largest planet and the seventh from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus is one of the gia...
Neptune <ul><li>Neptune is the fourth largest planet and the eight from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the orbits, ...
Pluto <ul><li>Pluto is the smallest planet and usually the farthest from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluto is the only plan...
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Solar System

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Solar System

  1. 1. Earth Science An overview of the Solar System
  2. 2. Geocentric Theory <ul><li>Essentially the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is associated with Aristotle in the 4 th century BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity claims God intentionally placed earth in the center of the universe. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Problems with Geocentric <ul><li>If Earth was in a fixed position: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then celestial bodies would move in a constant direction at a standard rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copernicus found that celestial bodies were not moving in a standard rate around the Earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Heliocentric or sun centered model. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Heliocentric Theory <ul><li>Polish cleric and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus spent 25 years studying the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew his Heliocentric or sun-centered theory would be rejected. </li></ul><ul><li>He only published his works towards the end of his life. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Galileo <ul><li>Galileo Galilei studied the work of Copernicus, and found evidence that supported his findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Galileo was summoned by the Catholic Church and under threat of torture recanted his findings. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Adding to Copernicus <ul><li>Tycho Brahe spent 25 years documenting planetary movement and positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Johannes Kepler used this data to construct what would become Kepler’s first law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets orbit the sun in an ellipse not a circle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus planets are not in a constant distance from the Sun. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Cont. <ul><li>Kepler’s 2 nd and 3 rd Laws mathmatically calculate orbital length and patterns of motion. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Gravity The mechanisms of Newton's law of universal gravitation; a point mass m 1 attracts another point mass m 2 by a force F 2 which is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance ( r ) between them. Regardless of masses or distance, the magnitudes of | F 1| and | F 2| will always be equal. G is the gravitational constant.
  9. 11. General relativity <ul><li>General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>description of gravity in modern physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unifies special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, and describes gravity as a property of the geometry of space and time, or spacetime. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Given the universality of free fall, there is no observable distinction between inertial motion and motion under the influence of the gravitational force. </li></ul>Newton Vs. Einstein <ul><ul><li>This suggests the definition of a new class of inertial motion, namely that of objects in free fall under the influence of gravity. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. The Sun <ul><li>The sun is the biggest, brightest, and hottest object in the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is an ordinary star. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is made of about 70% hydrogen and 28% helium. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Mercury <ul><li>Mercury is solid and is covered with craters. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury has almost no atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury is the eighth largest planet. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Venus <ul><li>Venus is the sixth largest planet. It’s about three-fourths the size of earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The surface is rocky and very hot. The atmosphere completely hides the surface and traps the heat. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Earth <ul><li>Earth is the fifth largest planet and the third from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid covers 71 percent of the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth has one moon. </li></ul>
  15. 17. EARTH <ul><li>Age: At least 4 1/2 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>Mass: 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 (6.6 sextillion) tons (6.0 sextillion metric tons). </li></ul><ul><li>Surface features: Highest land —Mount Everest, 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) above sea level. Lowest land —shore of Dead Sea, about 1,310 feet (399 meters) below sea). </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: Highest, 136 °F (58 °C) at Al Aziziyah, Libya. Lowest, -128.6 °F (-89.6 °C) at Vostok Station in Antarctica. Average surface temperature, 59 °F (15 °C). </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical makeup of the earth's crust (in percent of the crust's weight): oxygen 46.6, silicon 27.7, aluminum 8.1, iron 5.0, calcium 3.6, sodium 2.8, potassium 2.6, magnesium 2.0, and other elements totaling 1.6. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Moon
  17. 19. Mars <ul><li>Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Mars has a thin atmosphere that contains mostly carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Mars has two small moons. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Moons of Mars <ul><li>Phobos </li></ul><ul><li>Deimos </li></ul>
  19. 21. Jupiter
  20. 22. Jupiter’s Red Spot <ul><li>The Great Red Spot, a huge storm of swirling gas that has lasted for hundreds of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter does not have a solid surface. The planet is a ball of liquid surrounded by gas. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Moons of Jupiter <ul><li>Jupiter has four large Galilean moons, twelve smaller named moons and twenty-three more recently discovered but not named moons. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll take a look at the four large Galilean moons which were first observed by Galileo in 1610. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Io <ul><ul><li>Io is the fifth moon of Jupiter. It’s the third largest of Jupiter’s moons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Io has hundreds of volcanic calderas. Some of the volcanoes are active. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Europa <ul><li>Europa is the sixth of Jupiter’s moons and is the fourth largest. </li></ul><ul><li>It is slightly smaller than the Earth’s moon. </li></ul><ul><li>The surface strongly resembles images of sea ice on Earth. There may be a liquid water sea under the crust. </li></ul><ul><li>Europa is one of the five known moons in the solar system to have an atmosphere. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Ganymede <ul><li>Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter’s known satellites. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganymede has extensive cratering and an icy crust. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Callisto <ul><li>Callisto is the eighth of Jupiter’s known satellites and the second largest. </li></ul><ul><li>Callisto has the oldest, most cratered surface of any body yet observed in the solar system. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Saturn <ul><li>Saturn is the second largest planet and the sixth from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn is made of materials that are lighter than water. If you could fit Saturn in a lake, it would float! </li></ul>
  27. 29. Rings of Saturn <ul><li>Saturn’s rings are not solid; they are composed of small countless particles. </li></ul><ul><li>The rings are very thin. Though they’re 250,000km or more in diameter, they’re less than one kilometer thick. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Uranus <ul><li>Uranus is the third largest planet and the seventh from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus is one of the giant gas planets. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus is blue-green because of the methane in its atmosphere. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Neptune <ul><li>Neptune is the fourth largest planet and the eight from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the orbits, from 1979 to 1999, Neptune was the ninth planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Like Uranus, the methane gives Neptune its color. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Pluto <ul><li>Pluto is the smallest planet and usually the farthest from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluto is the only planet that has not been visited by a spacecraft. </li></ul>

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