Section 1 – The Road to War 4 Main Causes Militarism – policy of aggressive military preparedness Alliances – organization of countries involved in pacts or treaties Imperialism – stronger nations taking control of weaker nations Nationalism – pride or devotion to one’s country Mobilization – getting forces ready for war
Central Powers – alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary,the Ottoman Empire, and BulgariaThey were referred to as the Central Powers becausegeographically the rested between the Russian Empire inthe east and France and the United Kingdom in the west.Allied Forces (Triple Entente)– alliance of France,Russian Empire (including Serbia), British Empire, theUnited States and Italy
The Schlieffen PlanGerman plan of attack against France – It wasSchlieffen’s belief that Russia could not mobilizetroops before France was taken over and a battlewould not have to be fought on two frontsThis plan failed as Russian forces were mobilized ina few weeks – forcing war on two fronts
Stalemate – when neither side has an advantage - this was dueto the increased use of Trench warfareTrench Warfare - a type of armed combat in which theopposing troops fight from trenches that face each otherNo-Man’s Land - The area between the allied and enemytrenches. So called because nobody was supposed to be able tosurvive in this territory because it was swept constantly by machinegun and sniper fire.
Autocrat – a ruler with unlimited power – Most Americansbelieved Kaiser Wilhelm II was an autocrat.Propaganda – information intended to influence publicopinion - In America much of the propaganda used was negativerepresentation of Germany/GermansNeutral - not supporting or favoring either side in a war,dispute, or contest – at the beginning of the war President Wilsondeclared the USA neutral and worked toward a peace settlement
Section 2 – The United States Declares WarTensions between USA and German increaseU-Boat – German submarine that changed the rules of navalwarfare. U-Boats were used by Germany to hide under water andfire on ships without warningLusitania - British passenger ship that Germany believed wastransporting weapons to the allied forces – German U-Boat firedupon this ship – killing majority of passengers including the 128Americans
Sussex Pledge – a promise not to attack ships withoutwarning – President Wilson demanded that Germany agree to this -in 1917 Germany withdrew it’s agreement and began unrestrictedwarfare again.Zimmerman Telegram – telegram sent to Mexico byGerman foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman – telegram promisedMexico the American southwest if it would declare war on theUnited States – the telegram was intercepted by British intelligence.Bolshevik Revolution – in Russia,1917, led by VladimirLenin and Joseph Stalin, revolutionaries overthrew the non-democratic Czar of Russia – with him out of the way – USA wasmore willing to join the allies in war.
WWI TimelineJuly 1914 – WWI begins in EuropeMay 1915 – German sub sinks LusitaniaMarch 1916 – German sub sinks the Sussex – Frenchpassenger shipFebruary 1917 – Zimmerman note interceptedMarch 1917 – Russian Revolution brings republicangovernment to Russia & German sub sinks 3 U.S. shipsApril 1917 – United states declares war against Germany
Section 3 – Americans on the European FrontSelective Service Act – the selective service act instituted the draftsystem to increase size of America’s active military services.Because this was believed to be the “war to end all wars”, Americanpeople supported the draft in hopes of ending the war swiftly. 24million men registered and from that pool 3 million were chosen togo to war on behalf of America and the allies. Volunteers andNational Guardsmen made up the remainder of what was to becomethe AEFAmerican Expeditionary Force (AEF) – name of the troops the 3million men served in during WWI – thousands of womenvolunteered as nurses, clerks, and drivers – 400,000 AfricanAmericans served in segregated units, but few saw combat
Harlem Hell Fighters – Despite the racial tension stillexisting in America, over 300,000 African Americans eithervolunteered or were drafted to serve in segregated units.The 369th Regiment consisted of men eager to fight in thewar, so eager in fact that they convinced their white officersto lend them out to the French to fight. The French werequick to integrate the regiment into their army. Theirperformance was so admirable that the entire regiment wasawarded the highest combat medal the French had – theCroix de Guerre.
Convoy – Due to the unrestricted warfare tactics of Germansubmarines; in May 1917, all merchant and troop ships traveled in aconvoy. A convoy consists of destroyers, torpedo boats, and othernaval vessels that were equipped with hydrophones used to track anddestroy submarines. It was necessary to travel in this fashion in orderto get the American troops overseas as quickly as possible so they maycome to the aid of the allies and defeat the Germans.John J. Pershing – In June of 1917, President Wilson had agreedto send a small force of American troops to Europe. Not properlytrained, Wilson gave command of this force to General John J.Pershing. Gen. Pershing was a veteran of the Spanish-American and aformer teacher at West Point Military Academy. His experiences andskills were needed to lead the troops successfully against the strongGerman forces.
Commander-in-Chief – John Joseph (blackjack) PershingHe got his nickname serving with a black regiment in the Russo-Japanese War
Vladimir Lenin signed a truce with Germany on December15, 1917 – This leads to an armistice between Russia andGermany – allowing for the Germans to rally all troops tothe western front before American troops could arriveUpon arrival the AEF fought German forces along thewestern front deep into allied territory – turning theGermans back near ParisThe allies counter attacked German troops and in July of1918, the Germans were pushed back off the western front
The War EndsArmistice – ceasefireOn November 11, 1918 – both sides agreed to anarmistice – at 11am (11-11-11)This war also witnessed the 1st genocide when theTurkish (Ottoman) government wiped out theArmenians
Section 4 &5 - Americans on the Home FrontTo maintain support of the people and raise funds for war efforts - the US government enforced many new programs. (Propaganda) Liberty Bonds – special war bonds sold to Americans to raise money
Price Control – government managed the production anddistribution of food through setting food prices.Rationing –Government controlled the distribution of foods toconsumers in fixed amounts. People would also agree to NOT eatcertain foods on different days of the week in order to conserverations.Daylight Savings – turning the clocks ahead one hour in thesummer to increase the number of daylight hours for work.
The Committee on Public Information (CPI)To enforce loyalty to the Allied cause, the government regulated news and information by censoring the press. They also rallied support through films, pamphlets, and posters.Muckraking journalist George Creel was put in charge of leading this committee – The committee was responsible for issuing pro- war propaganda; however, Creel merely succeeded in spreading an already growing anti-German hysteria
Fear of ForeignersEspionage Act of 1917 - June 15, 1917, which made it a crime fora person to convey information with intent to interfere with theoperation or success of the armed forces of the United States or topromote the success of its enemiesSedition Act of 1918- The passing of this act forbade Americans touse "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about theUnited States government, flag, or armed forces during war. The actalso allowed the Postmaster General to deny mail delivery todissenters of government policy during wartime.It was an attempt by the United States government to limit freedomof speech during a time of war
Eugene V. DebsSocialist Eugene V. Debs was sentenced to 10 yearsin prison under this law. U.S. citizens includingmembers of the Industrial Workers of the Worldunion were also imprisoned during World War I fortheir anti-war dissent under the provisions of theSedition Act. Anti-war protesters were arrested bythe hundreds as speaking out against the draft andthe war became illegal under this law.
Immigration Act of 1917 - The most controversial aspect to the act wasthe proposal to exclude all "aliens over sixteen years of age,physically capable of reading, who cannot read the English language,or some other language or dialect, including Hebrew or Yiddish."Literacy tests for immigrants –forcing immigrants to prove theycan read before entering country. Law leads to nativism andincreased anti-German feelings. It also excludes Asian immigrantsfrom entering country.Vigilantes – groups of people who took the law into their ownhands to harass and even murder radicals and German immigrants.
Foreign fears effect MilitaryJoseph Wehner – resident of Everett, MA. promptly enlisted inthe U.S. Army Corps in June 1917 and developed an interest inflying. While undergoing training Wehner was briefly arrested bythe Secret Service on suspicion of treason on account of his Germanbackground. He was a successful American balloon buster of WorldWar One, with six victories to his credit prior to his death in actionon 18 September 1918.
President Wilson as a Global Peacemaker14 Points – program presented by the President as a means tomake the world safe from war. It included: an end to alliances Removal of trade barriers among nations Reduction of military forces Right of ethnic groups to Self-determination – make decisions about their own futures.
Paris Peace Conference 1919Spoils of War – rewards of war such as land, riches, personalbelongings – France, Italy, and Britain wanted these – Wilson didnot.League of Nations – organization of all the nations to work forworldwide security and peace Allies would not agree to this Congress also did not agree – especially because Wilson did not invite republican representation to the conference.Reparations – payment to allies for economic sufferings due to war– B, I, and F want Germany to pay
As a result of the conference – 9 new nations ofthe territory of Austria-Hungary, Russia,and Germanyseveral of these nations formed to serve as a bufferbetween Europe and Bolshevik Russia. Millions ofGermans and Hungarians became residents ofPoland, Czechoslovakia, or Romania, thus creatingmore ethnic tensions.
The Versailles Treatyon May 7, 1919 Germany was given the treaty to sign – at first theyrefused to sign it arguing that it violated the 14 points presented atthe peace conference. France threatened Germany with an invasion ifthey would not sign and on June 28, 1919 all the great powers signedthe treaty in the former home of King Louis XIV – the palace ofVersailles – hence the name Treaty of VersaillesWar Guilt Clause – France and Britain wanted to cripple Germany– they insisted that Germany provide reparations – payment foreconomic injury suffered during a war. In 1921, a ReparationsCommittee ruled that Germany owed the allies $33 billion dollars.
Economy slows as war comes to endDeath and destruction Troops have difficulty Bring feelings of Adjusting to civilian Gloom to many life Americans United States after the War Many women and minoritiesReturning African Americans continue Face loss of jobs as men return To face discrimination and To work segregation