Schmied The Pacific Salmon life cycle

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Life cycle of and hazards to Pacific Salmon. Includes keystone species concept, Basic stocks data for the west coast salmon populations, ATU's, Comprehensive overview. Used for environment overview for life science and sustainability curriculum

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Schmied The Pacific Salmon life cycle

  1. 1. jschmied©2015jschmied©2015
  2. 2. They are inThey are in troubletrouble Art ThompsonArt Thompson Mark HendersonMark Henderson Haida salmonHaida salmon jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  3. 3. The “Tragedy of the Commons” Ocean Resources are available to everyone. Even though you may know that what you want to do is not good for future generations… ….you are inclined to do so because it is in your own best interest in the short term! jschmied©2015jschmied©2015
  4. 4. 2000 data…2000 data… jschmied©2015jschmied©2015 Area % of Historic Run Size Alaska 106.7 British Columbia (non-Columbia River) 36.2 Puget Sound 8.0 Washington Coast 1.8 Columbia Basin 1.7 Oregon Coast 7.0 California 5.1 California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho 5.2 jschmied©2015jschmied©2015
  5. 5. A keystone species = A species that has an unusually large effect on the rest of its environment compared to its abundance.[1] The importance of salmon runs to plants & animals in the entire NW food chain is enormous.  For food – predators & scavengers (over 40 species)  For nutrients – adds Nitrogen/Phosphates for growth of streamside plants, cools H2O, prevent erosion…  For Income & Jobs - $1.5 B 60K jobs for Fishermen, Suppliers, truckers, restaurants, etc jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  6. 6. Bristol Bay, Alaska Data:  Produces nearly 50% of the world’s wild sockeye salmon,  Averages 37.5 million fish/year  Generates hundreds of millions of dollars in economic activity, employment for over 14,000 workers EPA Feb. 28, 2014 jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
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  9. 9. In the end of lifeIn the end of life comes a new beginning!comes a new beginning! http://www.mvihes.bc.ca/images/ERWRP/circle4.jpghttp://www.mvihes.bc.ca/images/ERWRP/circle4.jpg http://http://www.des.water.ca.gov/images/FRP/Steelhead_Redd1.jpgwww.des.water.ca.gov/images/FRP/Steelhead_Redd1.jpg Salmon ReddSalmon Redd jschmied©2015jschmied©2015 Females use their tails to create a low pressure zone to move 6-7”rocks & make their redds (nest). Redds are about 18 – 36” deep & 25-30’ long depending on the salmon species
  10. 10. http://www.mvihes.bc.ca/images/ERWRP/circle4.jpghttp://www.mvihes.bc.ca/images/ERWRP/circle4.jpg jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Eyed eggsEyed eggs http://http://www.des.water.ca.gov/images/FRP/Steelhead_Redd1.jpgwww.des.water.ca.gov/images/FRP/Steelhead_Redd1.jpg Salmon mating on Salmon ReddSalmon mating on Salmon Redd jschmied©2015jschmied©2015 Eggs from each mating are covered up by the female. A new part of the redd is dug just downstream Keeping silt off the older eggs
  11. 11. o Total amount of degrees above freezing (energy) young salmon accumulate over time. o Predicts time to hatch, emerge from redd, etc. ATU = Day’s H2O temp F° – 32F° = ____ ATU Ex: 39F° - 32F°= 7 ATU Using 7 ATU/Day: COHO SALMON Atu’s in F° Number Days to: To eyed stage 220 31.5 To hatch 400-500 57 - 71 To emergence 700-800 100 - 114 jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  12. 12. Mud and Sand cover the salmon eggs. Toxic run off from streets & lawn chemicals. Floods disturb the redd, leaving eggs exposed to predators. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 In rainstorms, the streets become small streams. Non permeable
  13. 13. www.pwlf.org/ chumsalmon.htmwww.pwlf.org/ chumsalmon.htm jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
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  15. 15. www.pwlf.org/ chumsalmon.htmwww.pwlf.org/ chumsalmon.htm jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Note: Fish are camouflaged on top & bottom!
  16. 16. http://www.bpa.gov/corporate/BPANews/Library/images/fish/Chinook_Smolts.jpg jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  17. 17. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Fish Ladder
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  19. 19. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 http://npsrp.weebly.com/salmonid-mortality.html Northern Pikeminnow Double Crested Cormorant Sculpin Caspian Terns
  20. 20. http://www.wdfw.wa.gov/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=130385http://www.wdfw.wa.gov/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=130385 jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  21. 21. www.seymoursalmon.com/fish%20life%20cycle.htm jschmied©2015jschmied©2015
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  23. 23. http://cybersalmon.fws.gov/coho.gif jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
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  26. 26. jschmied©2015jschmied©2015 http://blog.oregonlive.com/news_impact/2008/11/sealion.jpg
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  28. 28. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
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  30. 30. http://www.ngsprints.co.uk/images/M/696507.jpg jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  31. 31. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Provides food - Eagles, Crows, mammals & scavengers / insects worms etc. Provides nutrients – adds Nitrogen/Phosphates etc for growth of streamside plants
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  38. 38. Klamath River Columbia River jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  39. 39. This 85-pound Chinook salmon, a true June hog, was caught at Astoria by fisher Tony Canessa (pictured) in 1925. Photo: Columbia River Maritime Museum jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  40. 40. Solutions But No Easy Answers! jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Richard Shorty
  41. 41. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014Richard Shorty
  42. 42. We all want to Save the SalmonWe all want to Save the Salmon and protect ourand protect our Environment…!Environment…! jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Danny Dennis

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