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Schmied Salmon and Water Quality


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Water Quality is of key importance to the sustainability of all salmon populations across the world. Slideshow details key parameters to check (JHS level) for the sustainability of this iconic keystone species

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Schmied Salmon and Water Quality

  1. 1. Salmon & Water QualitySalmon & Water Quality Salmon need high quality water!! jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  2. 2. Salmon & Water QualitySalmon & Water Quality Our water comes from the snow pack in the Cascade Mountains jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  3. 3. Water QualityWater Quality IndicatorsIndicators jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  4. 4. • Salmon/Trout needSalmon/Trout need high dissolvedhigh dissolved Oxygen (DO) levelsOxygen (DO) levels to live. • Cold waterCold water holdsholds moremore Oxygen than Warm water.Oxygen than Warm water. • So, Salmon & TroutSo, Salmon & Trout alsoalso need cold water to surviveneed cold water to survive.. • Temps of 18°C are dangerousTemps of 18°C are dangerous,, 25°C is lethal25°C is lethal Rainbow TroutRainbow Trout Oxygen and TemperatureOxygen and Temperature (Groot and Morgolis 1991, USEPA 1987(Groot and Morgolis 1991, USEPA 1987)) jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  5. 5. AgeAge Upper Limit ºCUpper Limit ºC Optimal ºCOptimal ºC Migrating adultMigrating adult 2222 5 - 175 - 17 JuvenileJuvenile 1818 11 -1511 -15 SpawningSpawning 1010 Egg protectionEgg protection 1313 Temperature Limits for SockeyeTemperature Limits for Sockeye (Groot and Morgolis 1991, USEPA 1987)(Groot and Morgolis 1991, USEPA 1987) TempsTemps 4ºC4ºC or belowor below are not good for Salmon.are not good for Salmon. Above 18Above 18ºCºC are dangerousare dangerous jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  6. 6. Fish needFish need moremore oxygen when temperatures riseoxygen when temperatures rise because their metabolism increases.because their metabolism increases. Example:Example: • At 5At 5 oo CC (41(41 oo F), TroutF), Trout use 50-60 mguse 50-60 mg of Oxygen/hrof Oxygen/hr • At 25At 25 oo CC (77(77 oo F), Trout needF), Trout need 250-300 mg250-300 mg ofof Oxygen/hrOxygen/hr Oxygen, Temperature, & MetabolismOxygen, Temperature, & Metabolism Spawning male Pink Salmon, orSpawning male Pink Salmon, or “Humpback”“Humpback” jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  7. 7. • Survive in oxygen levels < than 1 mg/l< than 1 mg/l (Camp Dresser and McKee 1981) • Wide temperature tolerance = 0 C. to about 30 C. The Olympic Mud MinnowThe Olympic Mud Minnow Some fishSome fish (not Salmon!)(not Salmon!) can survive in ancan survive in an extreme oxygen & temperature ranges!extreme oxygen & temperature ranges! jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  8. 8. What pH range canWhat pH range can Salmonids live in?Salmonids live in? Salmonids begin to die below pH 6.0Salmonids begin to die below pH 6.0 … and above pH 9… and above pH 9 Environmental Chemistry Bashkin, (Bunce 1994) and StreamkeeperEnvironmental Chemistry Bashkin, (Bunce 1994) and Streamkeeper’s Field Guide’s Field Guide jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  9. 9. • A pH decrease ofA pH decrease of as little of 1.4 units of pHas little of 1.4 units of pH cancan disturb the aquatic community.disturb the aquatic community. • Trout / salmonTrout / salmon leaveleave areas with acid pH (low #areas with acid pH (low #’s)’s) • Acidic waterAcidic water slowsslows microbial activity,microbial activity, reducesreduces decomposition & nutrientdecomposition & nutrient cycling.cycling. Acid Effects on Salmon & Aquatic SystemsAcid Effects on Salmon & Aquatic Systems Male Sockeye Salmon, spawning phaseMale Sockeye Salmon, spawning phase jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  10. 10. • Low pHLow pH decreasesdecreases the amount of invertebratesthe amount of invertebrates and other plankton, vital parts of the food chain.and other plankton, vital parts of the food chain. • Some amphibians getSome amphibians get reproductive failuresreproductive failures duedue to sensitivity to low sensitivity to low pH. Other AcidOther Acid Effects ofEffects of low pHlow pH jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  11. 11. Dissolved oxygen (DO) isDissolved oxygen (DO) is oxygenoxygen dissolved indissolved in water.water. Oxygen dissolves into water from:Oxygen dissolves into water from: • the surrounding air;the surrounding air; • moving watermoving water - tumbling over falls or- tumbling over falls or rapids;rapids; • photosynthesisphotosynthesis (plants).(plants). • Dissolved O2 MovesDissolved O2 Moves fromfrom areas of highareas of high concentration oxygenconcentration oxygen toto areas of lowerareas of lower What is Dissolved Oxygen??What is Dissolved Oxygen?? jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  12. 12. 1.1. water temperaturewater temperature 2.2. pollutants presentpollutants present 3.3. physical statephysical state 4.4. speciesspecies 5.5. ……and moreand more.. It is hard to accurately predict minimum DOIt is hard to accurately predict minimum DO levels, but there is data for salmonids.levels, but there is data for salmonids. The amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) anThe amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) an aquatic organism needs depends uponaquatic organism needs depends upon the:the: Male Coho, Spawning PhaseMale Coho, Spawning Phase jschmied©2008jschmied©2008
  13. 13. • Embryo & Alevin stagesEmbryo & Alevin stages 1111 ppmppm (mg/l)(mg/l) • Other life stagesOther life stages 88 ppmppm • Natural activityNatural activity > 6 ppm (LIMIT!)> 6 ppm (LIMIT!) • Juvenile salmonJuvenile salmon > 8> 8 ppmppm • SpawningSpawning > 8> 8 ppmppm Minimum Dissolved Oxygen LevelMinimum Dissolved Oxygen Level Required for healthy SalmonRequired for healthy Salmon (EPA criteria)(EPA criteria) SpawningSpawning ChumChum SalmonSalmon jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  14. 14. 1. Measure of how clear water is = NTU or JTU1. Measure of how clear water is = NTU or JTU 2. Turbid water has organic & inorganic material2. Turbid water has organic & inorganic material (clay, silt )(clay, silt ) suspended in the watersuspended in the water.. 3. Caused by:3. Caused by: • Soil erosionSoil erosion • Run offRun off • Algae bloomsAlgae blooms • Bottom sedimentBottom sediment disturbancesdisturbances TurbidityTurbidity jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  15. 15. • Salmon needSalmon need clear waterclear water to see their preyto see their prey • Sight feeding is restrictedSight feeding is restricted above 50 NTU or JTUabove 50 NTU or JTU.. • Salmonids try to leave the area at 50 NTU or JTU.Salmonids try to leave the area at 50 NTU or JTU. • Best water for SalmonBest water for Salmon < 20 NTU or JTU< 20 NTU or JTU Turbidity affects SalmonTurbidity affects Salmon (Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU's)(Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU's) Or Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU’s) MaleMale CohoCoho SalmonSalmon SpawningSpawning PhasePhase jschmied©2015jschmied©2015
  16. 16. Salmon: Symbols of a healthy environmentSalmon: Symbols of a healthy environment Who speaksWho speaks for naturefor nature?? Salmon areSalmon are in troublein trouble jschmied©2014jschmied©2014
  17. 17. jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Richard Shorty Salmon & Water QualitySalmon & Water Quality
  18. 18. Andrew.hendry©1996Andrew.hendry©1996 jschmied©2014jschmied©2014 Female sockeye salmon, spawning phaseFemale sockeye salmon, spawning phase