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Genetics Unit Notes 2.2 http://jeanapettus.webs.com/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/ce...
Learning Goals
jschmied©2016
Performance Expectations
jschmied©2016
Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit
jschmied©2016
Asexual Reproduction – When offspring are created by one parent. Each h...
Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit
jschmied©2016
Allele – A different “brand” of the code for a protein. (Ex. Protein fo...
Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit
jschmied©201
Pedigree – A map used to study the inheritance of genetic traits.
Incomp...
Summarizing the two types of Reproduction
jschmied©2016
There are advantages to each form of reproduction. Some organisms ...
Bacteria Dividing
Asexual Reproduction
3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals.
...
Asexual Reproduction
Regeneration
3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals.
jschm...
Sexual Reproduction - Animals
3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals.
jschmied©...
Sexual Reproduction - Plants
Male
Pollen
Female
Stigma
leads to
Ovary
Pines
All Flowering Plants sexually reproduce (some ...
Sexual Reproduction
Grass, Ferns & Fungi
jschmied©2016
Example: Both Sexual & Asexual Reproduction
A = The same Strawberry reproducing asexually w/stolens
B = Strawberry reprodu...
Data Table Two – Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction
Name DNA Process Advantages Disadvantages
Sexual
Asexual
DNA
from
two
Par...
Comparing Sexual to Asexual Reproduction
5. I am able to explain why offspring from sexual reproduction have more
diverse ...
Organization: Human Body to DNA
1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is
containe...
Data Table One – Types of Cell Division
Name Definition Where Done in body Purpose
Mitosis
Meiosis
Simple Cell
Division
Al...
Mitosis – Meiosis
4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each
receives ½...
Process of Human Sexual Reproduction
Helpful terms to learn:
Gamete – cell with half the normal number of chromosomes, onl...
Where do your genes come from?
You get ½ your genes from Mom, ½ from Dad.
The Alleles for
a specific
Gene are
at same
loca...
Genes & Alleles AT CG
1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained
in the...
Genes “Code” for proteins
1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is
contained in t...
Proteins and Shape
Shape is everything! React properly if correct shape!
It’s sorta like a Key in a Lock! If the protein i...
If shape is slightly wrong the reaction may proceed slowly
If protein is wrong shape the reaction can not happen!
Genes “c...
Alleles “brands of the same gene”
Allele for Eye Color
Codes for Brown, Hazel or
Green appearing
eye color protein
“B”
All...
Dominant & Recessive Alleles
If a baby has two “B” alleles for eye color
BB = Brown, Green or Hazel eyes (BGH)
Called “Hom...
A Human Karyotype
4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the
parents because each receives ½...
The 23rd pair of chromosomes determine an
offspring’s gender
jschmied©2016
If the 23rd pair
is XX, the
baby is a
Female.
I...
What do proteins do? Examples of protein functions
Function Description Example
Antibody Antibodies bind to specific forei...
Mutations
jschmied©2013
7. I can explain how biological evolution
accounts for the diversity of species on
Earth today.
Ma...
Three Key causes of Mutations
1. Environment
Chemical Exposure – Smoke, other hazardous chems
Radiation Exposure – Sunligh...
Some types of copying Mutations
jschmied©2016
Photo credit ©Lineworks
Trisomy 21 – “Down’s Syndrome”
(causes about 90% of Down’s cases)
Individuals with Down’s have an extra 21st chromosome. T...
Turner’s Syndrome
(Absent or partial 23rd X chromosome!)
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition that affects deve...
Huntington’s Disease
(a fatal dominant gene mutation)
A fatal malfunction in the HTT gene on Chromosome 4 causes progressi...
Tay – Sach’s Disease
(a fatal recessive gene mutation)
• A defective recessive gene on chromosome
15 causes Tay-Sachs (T-S...
Who was Gregor Mendel? (1822 – 1884)
Father of Modern Genetics
• An Augustinian Monk
• Lived in Brno Monastry
• Used the 6...
Mendel’s Peas
Mendel used peas w/traits that were
independent of other traits. Like:
Purple Vs White Flowers
Yellow vs Gre...
Alleles “brands of the same gene”
jschmied©2013
M D M D M D
M = Chromosome from Mother
D = Chromosome from Father
Called “...
Dominant & Recessive Alleles
If a baby has two “B” alleles for eye color
BB = Brown, Green or Hazel eyes (BGH)
Called “Hom...
Phenotype vs Genotype
Phenotype:
The way the genetic code
is shown, or “expressed”.
(Smooth or Wrinkled pea)
Genotype
The ...
Dominant Alleles
A dominant allele will always
show, even if an individual
only has one copy of the
allele.
For example:
T...
Recessive Alleles
A recessive allele only
shows if the individual has
two copies of the recessive
allele.
The allele for a...
Creating a Family Pedigree
2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during
both sexual & asex...
Creating a Family Pedigree
2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during
both sexual & asex...
Punnet Squares Act One
Scientists investigate inherited traits by breeding Beebop Terriers.
• Alexa, the female, is Hungar...
Punnet Squares – Act One
Scientists investigate inherited traits by breeding Beebop Terriers.
• Alexa, the female, is Hung...
Punnet Squares Act Two
The scientist continue their investigation of inherited traits in Beebop Terriers
• Ally the female...
Punnet Squares
The scientist continue their investigation of inherited traits in Beebop Terriers
• Ally the female, is a r...
Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House
Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (CC) and straight hair (cc) i...
Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House
Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (CC) and straight hair (cc) i...
Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House
Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR)...
Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House
Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR)...
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Genetics unit notes

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Genetics course notes for 6-7-8-9 grade life science, Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction, also mitosis vs meiosis, Organization from the Human body to cell nucleus, DNA, gene, Alleles and protein creation. Homozygous dominant/recessive and Heterozygous w/example. Mutations Lock and key analogy. Punnet squares and pedigree problems

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Genetics unit notes

  1. 1. Genetics Unit Notes 2.2 http://jeanapettus.webs.com/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/celldivision/celldivision1.shtml jschmied©2016
  2. 2. Learning Goals jschmied©2016
  3. 3. Performance Expectations jschmied©2016
  4. 4. Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit jschmied©2016 Asexual Reproduction – When offspring are created by one parent. Each has identical traits Sexual Reproduction – The offspring of two parents. Each offspring has a mix of traits. Offspring – The product of reproduction between two individuals. Sex Cell (Gamete) – A cell with only one set (1/2 of a pair) of chromosomes. (Ex: Egg, Sperm Cells) • Egg – the gamete produced the female of the species – has only one set of chromosomes. (1N) • Sperm - the gamete produced the male of the species - has only one set of chromosomes. (1N) Zygote – A fertilized cell. A zygote has a complete set of chromosomes. (2N) Nucleus – A organelle in a cell that contains the genetic code (DNA /Chromosomes) for that individual. Chromosome – A long strand of DNA that has sections on the strand called genes that have the “code” (or plans) for different proteins. DNA – A molecule that holds the code with the genetic instructions for a person. Gene – A certain location on a cell’s DNA that has the code (or plans) to make a specific protein Genetic Information – Family genetic history, often used to track probability of disease.
  5. 5. Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit jschmied©2016 Allele – A different “brand” of the code for a protein. (Ex. Protein for Blue eye or Brown Eye color.) Protein – Molecules that are built from a Gene “codes” or plans that do important tasks in the body. (muscle fiber, hair, collagen, enzymes, antibodies… etc. Phenotype – The way the genetic code is expressed, or shown. (Curly or Straight hair) Genotype - The code on the DNA for a specific trait. (BB = homozygous dominant genotype) Mutation – A mistake in the code for a protein (on a gene) Characteristic – A genetic trait that is show or “expressed”…. like eye color, hair curliness, widow’s peak, double jointedness, thumb crossing. Dominant Trait – Trait that overrides a recessive trait. (Brown, Green or Hazel Eyes vs Blue Eyes) Recessive Trait – A trait that doesn’t show when paired with a dominant trait. (Ex: The Blue Eye trait is recessive to the Brown Eye trait) Homozygous - when offspring inherit the same alleles of a particular gene from both parents Heterozygous - when offspring inherit different alleles of a particular gene from their parents Punnett Square – A tool used to predict the result of a breeding experiment.
  6. 6. Key Vocabulary for the Genetics Unit jschmied©201 Pedigree – A map used to study the inheritance of genetic traits. Incomplete Dominance – When two different alleles pair up & neither is dominant. (Ex: White flower X Red flower = Pink Flower) Trade Off – When one has to chose between 2 (or more) competing “Goods” (Ex: Going to a friend’s birthday party vs. Playing soccer in the championship game) (Genetic ex: Choosing to risk having genetically impaired offspring vs. Adopting offspring.)
  7. 7. Summarizing the two types of Reproduction jschmied©2016 There are advantages to each form of reproduction. Some organisms can do both forms. Being able to do both can maximize species chances of survival.
  8. 8. Bacteria Dividing Asexual Reproduction 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. Hydra Budding Walking Stick jschmied©2016 Dolly (1st clone) & lamb
  9. 9. Asexual Reproduction Regeneration 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. jschmied©2016 Starfish split in two pieces regenerating into two different starfish!
  10. 10. Sexual Reproduction - Animals 3. I am able to identify both sexually & asexually reproducing plants and animals. jschmied©2016
  11. 11. Sexual Reproduction - Plants Male Pollen Female Stigma leads to Ovary Pines All Flowering Plants sexually reproduce (some also asexually reproduce). Trees sexually reproduce many ways. Ferns sexually reproduce w/spores . Big Leaf Maple Catkins Ferns Have spores jschmied©2016
  12. 12. Sexual Reproduction Grass, Ferns & Fungi jschmied©2016
  13. 13. Example: Both Sexual & Asexual Reproduction A = The same Strawberry reproducing asexually w/stolens B = Strawberry reproducing sexually w/Flowers…. And…. jschmied©2016 Seeds eaten by birds & animals spread new plants far from the parent plant. Reproducing with stolens keep the new plants near the parent plant.
  14. 14. Data Table Two – Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction Name DNA Process Advantages Disadvantages Sexual Asexual DNA from two Parents ALL DNA from one Parent - Offspring are genetically diverse. - Can adapt better in changing conditions & give better survival. Ex: climate change, competition, predation - Each mate gives 1/2 the chromosomes to offspring. - Female gives all other parts to mating. - Everything duplicates. - Divides into two identical organisms. - “Clones” - Reproduce without a partner. - Lots of offspring - Helpful in disaster to ensure species survival. - Ex: volcano destroying all but one plant.. - Earthquake, Forest fire - Need two partners. - Offspring requires lots of time, energy & resources. - Often fewer Offspring produced - Offspring has no diversity. “Clones” - Not able to adapt quickly in changing conditions. - Susceptible to disease, sub lethal mutations. I can accurately compare & contrast the processes of asexual & sexual reproduction. jschmied©2016
  15. 15. Comparing Sexual to Asexual Reproduction 5. I am able to explain why offspring from sexual reproduction have more diverse characteristics compared to offspring from asexual reproduction. jschmied©2013  One parent  Offspring get ALL DNA from one parent  Offspring are identical to parent unless mutation  One-celled organisms and some multi-celled organisms reproduce asexually  Offspring’s genes are the same as the parent’s  Cloning is a form of asexual reproduction  Two parents  Gets ½ the DNA from each parent.  Offspring not identical  Offspring inherit traits from two parents  Offspring inherits a unique set of genes  Generally only multi- celled organisms reproduce sexually  Single-celled organisms do not reproduce sexually  Produce offspring  Has at least one parent  Both pass DNA down to offspring  Offspring have a complete set of DNA  Can produce mutations (not clear from reading)  Both Continue species Sexual Asexual Both
  16. 16. Organization: Human Body to DNA 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. x 2 jschmied©2013 www.daviddarling.info
  17. 17. Data Table One – Types of Cell Division Name Definition Where Done in body Purpose Mitosis Meiosis Simple Cell Division Also for Asexual Reproduction Sexual “Reproduction Cell Division” a. All parts of body except in sex cells. b. New cell has 2 of each chromosome. (A full set of chromosomes from the one parent.) a. In sex organs (testes, ovaries.) b. Sex cells have only 1 of each chromosome. - ½ of a complete set from each parent. a. Growth b. Replacement of injured or worn out cells a. Reproduction of species. (Sperm & Egg unite to make a new organism w/ 2 of each chromosome) jschmied©2013 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. c. Asexual Reproduction
  18. 18. Mitosis – Meiosis 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent.jschmied©2013 www.crackingthecode.ca
  19. 19. Process of Human Sexual Reproduction Helpful terms to learn: Gamete – cell with half the normal number of chromosomes, only in sexual reproduction Zygote – cell formed when two gametes combine Fertilization – term to describe the joining of two gametes Haploid – having half the normal number of chromosomes Diploid – having the normal number of chromosomes jschmied©2016
  20. 20. Where do your genes come from? You get ½ your genes from Mom, ½ from Dad. The Alleles for a specific Gene are at same location on each of the two homologous chromosomes jschmied©2016
  21. 21. Genes & Alleles AT CG 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles. “B” “b” jschmied©2016 Base Pairs A = Adenine T = Thymine C = Cytosine G = Guanine A Pairs with T C Pairs with G Father’s Allele of the gene From Crick Mother’s Allele of the gene From Crick “Gene” Chromosome 15 Chromosome 15
  22. 22. Genes “Code” for proteins 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. jschmied©2013 Correctly coded proteins make your body function properly!
  23. 23. Proteins and Shape Shape is everything! React properly if correct shape! It’s sorta like a Key in a Lock! If the protein is right shape reaction proceeds. jschmied©2013 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles.
  24. 24. If shape is slightly wrong the reaction may proceed slowly If protein is wrong shape the reaction can not happen! Genes “code” for Proteins AND the code must be correct … wnthinktank.wordpress.com More like reality, two molecules “induce the enzyme to fit and react. jschmied©2013 1. I am able to explain that information on how cells are to grow and function is contained in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes, coded on genes. Also that each gene has at least two variations called alleles.
  25. 25. Alleles “brands of the same gene” Allele for Eye Color Codes for Brown, Hazel or Green appearing eye color protein “B” Allele for Eye Color Codes for Blue appearing eye color protein “b” • Each gene has at least two variations called alleles. jschmied©2013 Example using the Eye Color Trait
  26. 26. Dominant & Recessive Alleles If a baby has two “B” alleles for eye color BB = Brown, Green or Hazel eyes (BGH) Called “Homozygous Dominant” Genotype = BB Phenotype = BGH Eye color IF a baby has two “b” alleles for eye color bb = Blue eyes Called “Homozygous Recessive” Genotype = bb Phenotype = Blue Eye color IF a baby has “B” & “b” alleles for eye color Bb = Brown Green or Hazel eyes Called “Heterozygous” Genotype = Bb Phenotype = BGH color jschmied©2013 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent.
  27. 27. A Human Karyotype 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent. Two Sets of chromosomes! One each from the Male, One each from the Female It’s a boy! jschmied©2016
  28. 28. The 23rd pair of chromosomes determine an offspring’s gender jschmied©2016 If the 23rd pair is XX, the baby is a Female. If the 23rd pair is XY, the baby is a Male It’s a Boy!
  29. 29. What do proteins do? Examples of protein functions Function Description Example Antibody Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body Immunoglobulin G (IgG) (illustration) Enzyme Enzymes carry out almost all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in cells. They also assist with the formation of new molecules by reading the genetic information stored in DNA. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (illustration) Messenger Messenger proteins, such as some types of hormones, transmit signals to coordinate biological processes between different cells, tissues, and organs. Growth hormone (illustration) Structural component These proteins provide structure and support for cells. On a larger scale, they also allow the body to move. Actin (illustration) Transport/storage These proteins bind and carry atoms and small molecules within cells and throughout the body. Ferritin (illustration) jschmied©2016 http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/protein
  30. 30. Mutations jschmied©2013 7. I can explain how biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species on Earth today. Many mutations are lethal, but we take advantage of gene mutations every day! Selective Breeding Mutation in nature Click the cow to see cool genetic projects
  31. 31. Three Key causes of Mutations 1. Environment Chemical Exposure – Smoke, other hazardous chems Radiation Exposure – Sunlight, Nuclear radiation 2. Errors in copying (see next page) Inversion Deletion Duplication 3. Jumping (transposing) genes DNA sequence changes position in DNA (genome) jschmied©2013
  32. 32. Some types of copying Mutations jschmied©2016 Photo credit ©Lineworks
  33. 33. Trisomy 21 – “Down’s Syndrome” (causes about 90% of Down’s cases) Individuals with Down’s have an extra 21st chromosome. This often leads to the child having mental impairments and can impair growth. In the US, Down’s syndrome occurs in about 1 of 700 infants. Nearly 6,000 Down’s children are born each year. There are more than 350,000 people living with Down syndrome in the United States. jschmied©2016
  34. 34. Turner’s Syndrome (Absent or partial 23rd X chromosome!) Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition that affects development in females. TS is caused by a missing, or only a partial, second 23rd sex (X) chromosome. This condition is caused by a random mutation. TS occurs in approximately 1 of 2000 live female births & about 10% of all miscarriages. jschmied©2016
  35. 35. Huntington’s Disease (a fatal dominant gene mutation) A fatal malfunction in the HTT gene on Chromosome 4 causes progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain. Deteriorates a person’s physical & mental abilities during their 30’s & 40’s. HD has no cure. Children of a parent with HD have a 50/50 chance of getting the faulty Dominant gene. There’s about 30,000 symptomatic Americans & more than 200,000 at-risk of inheriting the disease. >40 CAG Repeats in Huntingtin (HTT) Gene jschmied©2016
  36. 36. Tay – Sach’s Disease (a fatal recessive gene mutation) • A defective recessive gene on chromosome 15 causes Tay-Sachs (T-S). • The defective gene doesn’t make a protein called Hex-A. • Without this protein, chemicals called “gangliosides” build up in nerve cells in the brain & destroy brain cells. • Individuals with T-S have inherited one defective gene from each parent. • Usually affects children, ending life from 3-5 years. • Rarer forms have been found in juveniles 2- 10 years old, and in older adults. • The incidence varies. Certain ethnic populations have a very high incidence. (1 in 50). jschmied©2016
  37. 37. Who was Gregor Mendel? (1822 – 1884) Father of Modern Genetics • An Augustinian Monk • Lived in Brno Monastry • Used the 6 acre garden to experiment w/Pea plants • Ist created terms: “recessive & “dominant” • Called these “factors” • Identified many of the rules of heredity. Mendel used peas w/traits thatwere independent of Other traits. Like Purple Vs White Flowers Yellow vs Green Peas Round vs Wrinkled Peas Green vs Yellow Pea Pods jschmied©2016
  38. 38. Mendel’s Peas Mendel used peas w/traits that were independent of other traits. Like: Purple Vs White Flowers Yellow vs Green Peas Round vs Wrinkled Peas Green vs Yellow Pea Pods jschmied©2016
  39. 39. Alleles “brands of the same gene” jschmied©2013 M D M D M D M = Chromosome from Mother D = Chromosome from Father Called “Homologous Chromosomes” Each allele for a gene is at the same location on chromosomes of the same type. Mom’s Chromosome 15 Dad’s Chromosome 15
  40. 40. Dominant & Recessive Alleles If a baby has two “B” alleles for eye color BB = Brown, Green or Hazel eyes (BGH) Called “Homozygous Dominant” Genotype = BB Phenotype = BGH Eye color IF a baby has two “b” alleles for eye color bb = Blue eyes Called “Homozygous Recessive” Genotype = bb Phenotype = Blue Eye color IF a baby has “B” & “b” alleles for eye color Bb = Brown Green or Hazel eyes Called “Heterozygous” Genotype = Bb Phenotype = BGH color jschmied©2013 4. I can describe how offspring from sexual reproduction differ from the parents because each receives ½ their genetic information from each parent.
  41. 41. Phenotype vs Genotype Phenotype: The way the genetic code is shown, or “expressed”. (Smooth or Wrinkled pea) Genotype The code on the DNA for a specific trait. jschmied©2016 Homozygous Dominant Heterozygous Homozygous Recessive
  42. 42. Dominant Alleles A dominant allele will always show, even if an individual only has one copy of the allele. For example: The allele for a widow’s peak is dominant. You can have either one or two copies of the allele & have a widow’s peak. While a widow’s peak is a dominant trait, it is not common! jschmied©2016
  43. 43. Recessive Alleles A recessive allele only shows if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele. The allele for albinism is recessive. This child has two copies of the recessive allele for albinism. jschmied©2016
  44. 44. Creating a Family Pedigree 2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during both sexual & asexual reproduction. 1. Gather Information 2. Plot Data Phenotype = Is what a trait “looks” like Ex: Wavy hair Blue Eyes Genotype = the code for a protein that makes a characteristic. Ex: code for Wavy hair or for Blue Eyes jschmied©2016 3. Evidence a. Label Recessives b. Work on one side of family tree c. Sort out Heterozygous c. Rest are BB or Bb
  45. 45. Creating a Family Pedigree 2. I can explain that genes are passed from parent cells to offspring during both sexual & asexual reproduction. 1. Gather Information 2. Plot Data 3. Evidence a. Label Recessives b. Work on one side of family tree c. Sort out Heterozygous c. Rest are BB or Bb Phenotype = Is what a trait “looks” like Ex: Wavy hair Blue Eyes Genotype = the code for a protein that makes a characteristic. Ex: code for Wavy hair or for Blue Eyes Blue Blue BlueBlue Brown Brown Brown Green Hazel Hazel Green Hazel BrownGreenGreen bb bb bb Bb Bb BB Bb BB Bb BB Bb BB Bb BB Bb BB Bb One parent must be Bb to give their offspring a “b” BB Bb BB Bb BB Bb These offspring could be either BB or Bb. There’s not enough information These offspring could be either BB or Bb. There’s not enough information jschmied©2016
  46. 46. Punnet Squares Act One Scientists investigate inherited traits by breeding Beebop Terriers. • Alexa, the female, is Hungarian blue coat. She is heterozygous (Tt) for blue tail color. • Arnold, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. He is also heterozygous (Tt) for blue tail color. Complete the Punnett Square, showing the results of this experiment. jschmied©2016 Tt Tt Phenotype Ratio Blue ____ Orange ____
  47. 47. Punnet Squares – Act One Scientists investigate inherited traits by breeding Beebop Terriers. • Alexa, the female, is Hungarian blue coat. She is heterozygous (Tt) for blue tail color. • Arnold, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. He is also heterozygous (Tt) for blue tail color. Complete the Punnett Square, showing the results of this experiment. jschmied©2016 Tt Tt T t T t T T t t T T t t 1 2 1 25% 50% 25% Tt Tt Phenotype Ratio Blue ____ Orange ____75% 25%
  48. 48. Punnet Squares Act Two The scientist continue their investigation of inherited traits in Beebop Terriers • Ally the female, is a rare White coat. She is homozygous recessive (rr) for coat color. • Herman, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. He is heterozygous (Rr) for coat color Complete the Punnett Square and show the results of Mike and Suzy’s experiment. jschmied©2016 rr Rr Phenotype Ratio Blue ____ White ____
  49. 49. Punnet Squares The scientist continue their investigation of inherited traits in Beebop Terriers • Ally the female, is a rare White coat. She is homozygous recessive (rr) for coat color. • Herman, the male, is a Hungarian blue coat. He is heterozygous (Rr) for coat color Complete the Punnett Square and show the results of Mike and Suzy’s experiment. jschmied©2016 rr Rr r r R r r r r r R R r r 0 2 2 0% 50% 50% rr Rr Phenotype Ratio Blue ____ Albino ____50% 50%
  50. 50. Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (CC) and straight hair (cc) in wizard families at the Hogwarts houses. Below is a pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family who all were chosen for the Gryffindor house. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. http://gothlupin.tripod.com/gryffindor.html jschmied©2013
  51. 51. Pedigree Problems – Gryffindor House Anna and Andrew are investigating the heredity of curly (CC) and straight hair (cc) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family who were all members of Gryffindor. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. http://gothlupin.tripod.com/gryffindor.html jschmied©2013 cc cc cc cc CC, Cc CC,Cc Cc CcCcCcCcCc Cc CC Cc CC Cc CC Less likely, Why?
  52. 52. Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR) and non rolling tongues (rr) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family from Syltherin House. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. jschmied©2013 harrypotter.wikia.com
  53. 53. Pedigree Problems – Slytherin House Anna and Andrew continue their investigation into the heredity of rolling tongues (RR) and non rolling tongues (rr) in wizard families at the Hogwart’s houses. They discovered this pedigree showing three generations of a wizarding family from Syltherin House. Please analyze this pedigree, then write in the genotype of each family member. jschmied©2013 Rr Rr Rr rr Rr Rr rr RR,RrRR,RrrrRrRR,Rr Rr Rr Rr harrypotter.wikia.com

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