Water Notes

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Overview of this wide ranging water unit. Begins with learning goals and performance expectations. Then covers the Water on Earth as a resource. Afterwards explores dwindling resources with articles of Water Woes about the Oglalla Reservoir in the midwest of the USA and Ocean animals facing extinction. Next flows through students discovering personal and national water footprints. Followed by the complete Water Cycle, research on Earth's Water crisis, Where does your wastewater go and the Pacific Salmon life cycle followed up with an overview of What's happening to salmon populations. Finally the unit ends with a lab on Salmon and water quality.

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Water Notes

  1. 1. S Water, Salmon & our Environment v2.0 Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. jschmied©2016
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  4. 4. S Water Unit Vocabulary Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. Accumulation – Gathering large amounts of water or ice together Ex: a lake or ocean, or a glacier forming Aquifer – An underground layer of water bearing rock. Water bearing rocks have cracks & holes water can pass through. Condensation – The conversion of water vapor into liquid. Usual referred to forming clouds , fog or dew Deposition : A physical change of state from a gas to a solid. Ex: frost forming on grass during a cold night Evaporation – The process of turn a substance, like water, into a vapor. Freezing: A physical change of state from a liquid to a solid. Ex: Refrigerator freezing water to ice. Groundwater flow – The flow of water under ground. Ex: gravitational flow of water in aquifers Infiltration – The process by which water on the surface enters soil. Melting : A physical change of state from a solid to a liquid. Ex: Heating ice to make water. Precipitation – Water released from clouds in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail Percolation – The passage of water through the soil & rocks. The flow can be either up, down or sideways. Surface Run Off – Water flow that occurs when soil is saturated & the water runs over the land. Surface Water flow – The flow of water on the surface. Ex: flow in creeks and rivers down to the ocean. Sublimation : A physical change of state from a solid to a gas. Ex: Ice evaporating at altitude in the sun. Transpiration – Evaporation of water from a plant’s pores into the atmosphere. ATU – Accumulated Temperature Units – (Temp – 32) = ATU Used to predict salmon development over time. Alevin – First stage of a newly hatched salmon when still attached to the yolk sac. jschmied©2016
  5. 5. S Water Unit Vocabulary Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. Egg – First stage of salmon develop. Fertilized eggs are laid in the stream bottom and covered with rocks. Fish Ladder – Stair step like structure built so salmon can navigate up and around barriers like dams. Fry – Stage after Alevin where young salmon absorb the egg sac and become free swimming. Parr – Stage just after Fry where young salmon move into deeper water & get distinctive “parr” markings Gill net – A fishing net hung vertically so that fish swimming into the net get trapped by their gills. Habitat – The natural home or environment of an animal, plant or other organism. Harvest – The total of fish caught, took or removed for human use. Hatchery – A structure where salmon are artificially spawned and the salmon eggs incubate & hatch. Hydropower Dam – Dam that creates electricity due to water flow spinning the blades of a generator. Predator – An animal that preys on, or eats, another. Redd – A spawning depression in the bottom of a stream where salmon eggs are laid, then covered by rocks. Smolt – A young salmon that leaves the fresh water and adapts to life in the salt water. Spawning – The act of mating between male & female salmon where the male’s milt fertilizes salmon eggs Species of Salmon (5) – Chinook (King), Coho (Silver), Sockeye (Red), Humpback (Pink) Chum (Dog) Dissolved Oxygen – Amount of oxygen dissolved in water. pH – A measurement that tells how acidic, neutral or basic a substance is. Turbidity – Measure of water clarity. Turbid water has many particles of mud & sediment in it. Wastewater - Water used for flushing, washing, manufacturing & contains waste products; sewage Primary Treatment – Mechanical Treatment designed to remove larger solids from raw sewage jschmied©2016
  6. 6. S Water Unit Vocabulary Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. Secondary Treatment – Treatment designed to remove smaller, dissolved organic matter from sewage Tertiary Treatment – Extra treatment (chemical removal, membrane) that can clean water to useable quality Disinfection – Final treatment step using chlorine, or ozone or UV radiation to remove any harmful bacteria Global Water Crisis – Crisis in which over 665 Million people lack access to clean water & over 2 Billion lack access to a toilet. 4 key components. Water/Sanitation, Women/Children, Disease, Economics & the Women’s crisis Personal Water Footprint – The amount of water you consume in your daily life, including that used to grow food, produce energy, and for all products used in your daily life… books, house, car, furniture, clothes etc. National Water Footprint – average water use by a nation. Measured per person /per year (in liters) Internal Water Footprint - average water use coming from inside a nation of the total water used. External Water Footprint - average water use coming from outside a nation of the total water used. Product Water Footprint – total amount of water used or polluted to make a product, (tomato, glass of wine etc) Species of Salmon (5) – Chinook (King), Coho (Silver), Sockeye (Red), Humpback (Pink) Chum (Dog) Dissolved Oxygen – Amount of oxygen dissolved in water. pH – A measurement that tells how acidic, neutral or basic a substance is. Turbidity – Measure of water clarity. Turbid water has many particles of mud & sediment in it. jschmied©2016
  7. 7. S Earth The Water Planet!! Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. jschmied©2016 Click Earth to see Earth the Water Planet presentation.
  8. 8. S Earth The Water Planet!! • I am able to explain the importance of clean water in our environment. • I can explain key issues of the global water crisis. jschmied©2015
  9. 9. S Earth The Water Planet!! • I am able to explain the importance of clean water in our environment. • I can explain key issues of the global water crisis. … and how much is useable jschmied©2015
  10. 10. S Ocean Animals face mass Extinction Water Woes: Vast US Aquifer being tapped out • I am able to explain the importance of clean water in our environment. • I can explain key issues of the global water crisis. What you should know: • Know the key points of each article • What’s the take home message? • How was the data obtained? • What evidence does each author give to support their thesis? • What’s the future if we keep going the way we are? • What alternatives are there? jschmied©2015
  11. 11. S Earth The Water Planet!! Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. 1900 = 1.6 Billion 1970 = 3.9 Billion 9/2014 = 7.1 Billion 2050 = 9.2 Billion? • I can explain why Health, Wealth, clean Water, & Population are linked issues in the environment jschmied©2015
  12. 12. S TheGlobalWaterCrisis • Be able to name the key areas of the water crisis. • How many people (est.) die each year due to poor water quality? • What are the key reasons water is making people sick? (3 level reasoning) • Describe at least one workable solution to each problem area. jschmied©2016
  13. 13. S The Water Cycle !! Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. • I can explain how pollution spreads through the environment via the water cycle. • I can describe the water cycle while tracking water through Puget Sound. Click Earth to see class notes. jschmied©2016
  14. 14. S The Water Cycle !! • I can explain how pollution spreads through the environment via the water cycle. • I can describe the water cycle while tracking water through Puget Sound . Know all parts of the water cycle and how pollution can effect parts of the cycle jschmied©2014
  15. 15. S The Water Cycle • I can explain how pollution spreads through the environment via the water cycle. • I can describe the water cycle while tracking water through Puget Sound . An example showing how pollution can spread through the environment & be really hard to clean up! jschmied©2016
  16. 16. Your Water Footprint S Know: S About how much water an Average American uses vs. the Global Average. S What are the most water intensive products? S What are the least water intensive products? • I know my personal water footprint and the impact it has on the environment jschmied©2016 Click Footprint to go to activity.
  17. 17. Follow the Raindrop through Puget Sound S Know the places a raindrop goes through in the Puget Sound water cycle. S Know what each water cycle process means. (ex: What’s an Aquifer?) S Know how pollution can spread through the Puget Sound water cycle. • I can explain how pollution spreads through the environment via the water cycle. • I can describe the water cycle while tracking water through Puget Sound . jschmied©2016 Click Raindrop for instructions.
  18. 18. The Pacific Salmon S Know all phases of the Pacific Salmon life cycle S Know how to calculate ATU S Know the dangers and predators a salmon faces in each stage of the life cycle. S Know the 4 + 2 H’s that threaten the survival of the Pacific Salmon. S Be able to tell examples of ways salmon stocks are depleted. • I understand the life cycle of the salmon and know how humans can impact salmon jschmied©2016 Click Salmon to see life cycle presentation
  19. 19. Tragedy of the Commons The commons = Shared resources ex: Air, Water, Soil, Energy, Space, Fish, Internet… S People acting independently & in their own self-interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource… S ….even though it is clearly not in anyone’s long term interest for this to happen S or another way… S …. Even though you may know that what you want to do is not good for future generations… S ….you are inclined to do so because it is in your own best interest. In the end everyone loses… This picture was taken at the Union Fisherman’s Dock in Astoria, Oregon in about 1910. Left to right – Salmon weighs 116 and 121 lbs. jschmied©2015
  20. 20. Be able to fill this out & tell the dangers at each stage. jschmied©2014
  21. 21. S What’s endangering Pacific Salmon? • Be able to give examples on how Pacific Salmon are being endangered. • Use the questions to help focus your studies. • Know and be able to explain 4H’s & 2 jschmied©2016 Click Salmon for article.
  22. 22. Salmon & Water Quality Know Basic Water Quality Ranges S Min & Max Temperature S Min & Max pH S Min O2 levels S What O2 depends on S Optimal & Max Turbidity level. Why is exceeding this level is a problem ? Parameters (levels) S >4˚C to <18˚C (dangerous). 25˚C is deadly due to lack of O2 & diseases. S Below 6 and above 9 pH S Above 6 ppm for survival S Temperature! – Cold H2O holds more O2 S Best less than 20 JTU. No more than 50 JTU. Otherwise salmon can’t see food! • I can test & analyze water samples to see if these meet water quality standards. jschmied©2016 Click fish for Water Quality presentation
  23. 23. Salmon & Water Quality Lab Compare Basic Water Quality Lab Data with Safe Ranges S Given data, be able to identify samples that are healthy in all water quality areas. S Given data, be able to identify samples where one, two, three or more areas of water quality are not healthy S Given data, be able to explain why samples are safe or unsafe. S Be able to correctly recommend how to fix a sample with water quality problems • I can test & analyze water samples to see if these meet water quality standards. jschmied©2013
  24. 24. S Water, Salmon & our Environment Learning to balance our “wants” with our community’s need to create a healthy, sustainable environment. jschmied©2016

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